Ink4a Locus: Beyond Cell Cycle

  • Greg H. Enders
Part of the Cancer Genetics book series (CANGENETICS)


p16 is an established suppressor of both “liquid” and solid tumors, with the latter being the most prominent. Major human cancer types with regular inactivation of p16 include melanoma, adenocarcinoma of the breast, squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and colorectal carcinomas (Baylin et al. 1998; Pollack, Pearson, and Hayward 1996). In pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the frequency of p16 inactivation approaches 100% (Caldas et al. 1994; Schutte et al. 1997). Mechanisms of inactivation run the gamut from large deletions to point mutations and promoter methylation (Baylin et al. 1998). Germ line p16 mutations in humans are now known to predispose to melanoma (Kamb et al. 1994b)


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineFox Chase Cancer CenterPhiladelphiaUSA

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