Environmental and Occupational Exposures

  • Amanda I. Phipps
  • Dana Mirick
  • Christopher I. Li
  • Scott Davis


Breast cancer incidence rates have increased substantially over the past several decades in most Westernized countries, with great variation in incidence rates between countries (Kamangar et al. 2006). Given such patterns of breast cancer incidence and the fact that established risk factors for breast cancer explain less than half of all incident cases (Madigan et al. 1995), it has been widely suggested that the environment may play an important role in breast cancer etiology. Several classes of environmental exposures have been investigated in relation to breast cancer risk, with sources of exposure as diverse as the proposed mechanisms linking exposure to breast cancer risk.


Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Risk Benign Breast Disease Excess Relative Risk Atomic Bomb Survivor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda I. Phipps
    • 1
  • Dana Mirick
    • 1
  • Christopher I. Li
    • 1
  • Scott Davis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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