Breast Cancer Outcomes

  • Graham A. Colditz
  • Courtney Beers


Although breast cancer incidence and mortality in the United States have declined in recent years, the number of survivors continues to grow and identifying factors that may modify survival is thus increasingly important (Espey et al. 2007). The twenty-first century has brought a continued decrease in breast cancer mortality in developed countries. Specifically, in the United States the death rate is now 25.5 per 100,000 women and survival rates at 5 years (86%), 10 years (78%), 15 years (71%), and 20 years (65%) have all improved (SEER; Espey et al. 2007) (Brenner 2002). Improved survival presents new questions and considerations for patients, clinicians, and researchers.


Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Survivor American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Outcome Adult Weight Gain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. American Cancer Society (2007) Physical Activity and the Cancer Patient. Retrieved December 27, 2007, from
  2. Arndt V, Stegmaier C et al (2006) A population-based study of the impact of specific symptoms on quality of life in women with breast cancer 1 year after diagnosis. Cancer 107(10):2496–2503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & National Breast Cancer Centre (2007) Breast cancer survival by size and nodal status in Australia. Cancer Series no. 39. Cat. No. CAN34. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  4. Bower JE, Ganz PA et al (2006) Fatigue in long-term breast carcinoma survivors: a longitudinal investigation. Cancer 106(4):751–758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brenner H (2002) Long-term survival rates of cancer patients achieved by the end of the 20th century: a period analysis. Lancet 360(9340):1131–1135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown JK, Byers T et al (2003) Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: an American Cancer Society guide for informed choices. CA Cancer J Clin 53(5):268–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Byers TE, Wolf HJ et al (2008) The impact of socioeconomic status on survival after cancer in the United States: findings from the national program of cancer registries patterns of care study. Cancer 113(3):582–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell JB (2002) Breast cancer-race, ethnicity, and survival: a literature review. Breast Cancer Res Treat 74(2):187–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Y, Semenciw R et al (2001) Incidence of second primary breast cancer among women with a first primary in Manitoba, Canada. Breast Cancer Res Treat 67(1):35–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen Y, Thompson W et al (1999) Epidemiology of contralateral breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8(10):855–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chlebowski RT, Aiello E et al (2002) Weight loss in breast cancer patient management. J Clin Oncol 20(4):1128–1143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chlebowski RT, Blackburn GL et al (2006) Dietary fat reduction and breast cancer outcome: interim efficacy results from the Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 98(24):1767–1776CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chu KC, Lamar CA et al (2003) Racial disparities in breast carcinoma survival rates: seperating factors that affect diagnosis from factors that affect treatment. Cancer 97(11):2853–2860CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Coleman MP, Quaresma M et al (2008) Cancer survival in five continents: a worldwide population-based study (CONCORD). Lancet Oncol 9(8):730–756CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dalton SO, Schuz J et al (2008) Social inequality in incidence of and survival from cancer in a population-based study in Denmark, 1994–2003: Summary of findings. Eur J Cancer 44(14):2074–2085CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Demark-Wahnefried W, Rimer BK et al (1997) Weight gain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. J Am Diet Assoc 97(5):519–526, 529; quiz 527–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eley JW, Hill HA et al (1994) Racial differences in survival from breast cancer. Results of the National Cancer Institute Black/White Cancer Survival Study. JAMA 272(12):947–954CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Espey DK, Wu XC et al (2007) Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2004, featuring cancer in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Cancer 110(10):2119–2152Google Scholar
  19. Ganz PA (2005) Breast cancer, menopause, and long-term survivorship: critical issues for the 21st century. Am J Med 118(Suppl 12B):136–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ganz PA, Kwan L et al (2004) Quality of life at the end of primary treatment of breast cancer: first results from the moving beyond cancer randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 96(5):376–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ganz PA, Rowland JH et al (1998) Life after breast cancer: understanding women’s health-related quality of life and sexual functioning. J Clin Oncol 16(2):501–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Garland CF, Gorham ED et al (2007) Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103(3–5):708–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hayes DF, Isaacs C et al (2001) Prognostic factors in breast cancer: current and new predictors of metastasis. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 6(4):375–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Holmes MD, Chen WY et al (2005) Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. JAMA 293(20):2479–2486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Holmes MD, Stampfer MJ et al (1999) Dietary factors and the survival of women with breast carcinoma. Cancer 86(5):826–835CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaffashian F, Godward S et al (2003) Socioeconomic effects on breast cancer survival: proportion attributable to stage and morphology. Br J Cancer 89(9):1693–1696CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kenne Sarenmalm E, Ohlen J et al (2008) Experience and predictors of symptoms, distress and health-related quality of life over time in postmenopausal women with recurrent breast cancer. Psychooncology 17(5):497–505CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kolden GG, Strauman TJ et al (2002) A pilot study of group exercise training (GET) for women with primary breast cancer: feasibility and health benefits. Psychooncology 11(5):447–456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kroenke CH, Chen WY et al (2005) Weight, weight gain, and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 23(7):1370–1378CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Land SR, Wickerham DL et al (2006) Patient-reported symptoms and quality of life during treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast cancer prevention: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. JAMA 295(23):2742–2751CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee TS, Kilbreath SL et al (2007) Quality of life of women treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. Support Care Cancer 16(4):399–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lidgren M, Wilking N et al (2007) Health related quality of life in different states of breast cancer. Qual Life Res 16(6):1073–1081CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lim HS, Roychoudhuri R et al (2006) Cancer survival is dependent on season of diagnosis and sunlight exposure. Int J Cancer 119(7):1530–1536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Meeske K, Smith AW et al (2007) Fatigue in breast cancer survivors two to five years post diagnosis: a HEAL Study report. Qual Life Res 16(6):947–960Google Scholar
  35. Mellemkjaer L, Friis S et al (2006) Risk of second cancer among women with breast cancer. Int J Cancer 118(9):2285–2292Google Scholar
  36. Obesity Initiative NHLBI, Expert P (1998) Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults – the evidence report. Obesity Res 6(Suppl 2):51s–209 sGoogle Scholar
  37. Pierce JP, Natarajan L et al (2007) Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial. JAMA 298(3):289–298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Raymond JS, Hogue CJ (2006) Multiple primary tumours in women following breast cancer, 1973–2000. Br J Cancer 94(11):1745–1750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ries LA, Eisner MP et al (2003) SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2000. National Cancer Institute, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  40. Robsahm TE, Tretli S et al (2004) Vitamin D3 from sunlight may improve the prognosis of breast-, colon- and prostate cancer (Norway). Cancer Causes Control 15(2):149–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rock CL, Demark-Wahnefried W (2002) Nutrition and survival after the diagnosis of breast cancer: a review of the evidence. J Clin Oncol 20(15):3302–3316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Roetzheim RG, Gonzalez EC et al (2000) Effects of health insurance and race on breast carcinoma treatments and outcomes. Cancer 89(11):2202–2213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Saphner T, Tormey DC et al (1996) Annual hazard rates of recurrence for breast cancer after primary therapy. J Clin Oncol 14(10):2738–2746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schmitz KH, Holtzman J et al (2005) Controlled physical activity trials in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(7):1588–1595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. SEER. Retrieved November 12, 2007Google Scholar
  46. Stanford JL, Greenberg RS (1989) Breast cancer incidence in young women by estrogen receptor status and race. Am J Public Health 79(1):71–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Strand BH, Kunst A et al (2007) The reversed social gradient: higher breast cancer mortality in the higher educated compared to lower educated. A comparison of 11 European populations during the 1990 s. Eur J Cancer 43(7):1200–1207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomson CS, Hole DJ et al (2001) Prognostic factors in women with breast cancer: distribution by socioeconomic status and effect on differences in survival. J Epidemiol Community Health 55(5):308–315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Trentham-Dietz A, Newcomb PA et al (2007) Breast cancer risk factors and second primary malignancies among women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 105(2):195–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Trentham-Dietz A, Sprague BL et al (2008) Health-related quality of life before and after a breast cancer diagnosis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 109(2):379–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Woods LM, Rachet B et al (2006) Origins of socio-economic inequalities in cancer survival: a review. Ann Oncol 17(1):5–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang S, Folsom AR et al (1995) Better breast cancer survival for postmenopausal women who are less overweight and eat less fat. The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer 76(2):275–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes Jewish HospitalWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations