Shift Work and Circadian Disruption



There is increasing interest in the possible role of environmental factors that can alter normal endocrine function, often referred to as “endocrine disruptors,” in the etiology of cancer. Because the release of nearly all hormones exhibits a circadian timing patterned on approximately a 24-h cycle, agents that disrupt circadian rhythm may also alter endocrine function and thereby the regulation of reproductive hormones (Czeisler and Klerman 1999). Of particular interest regarding breast cancer is the potential influence of both light at night and sleep disruption on the regulation of estrogen release and levels of circulating estrogen.


Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Risk Shift Work Night Shift Melatonin Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adashi EY (1991) The ovarian life cycle. In: Yen SSC Jaffe RB (eds) Reproductive endocrinology. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 202–204Google Scholar
  2. Ahlborg G Jr, Axelsson G, Bodin L (1996) Shift work, nitrous oxide exposure and subfertility among Swedish midwives. Int J Epidemiol 25:783–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akerstedt T (1990) Psychological and psychophysiological effects of shift work. Scand J Work Environ Health 16(Suppl 1):67–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akerstedt T, Froberg JE, Friberg Y, Wetterberg L (1979) Melatonin excretion, body temperature and subjective arousal during 64 hours of sleep deprivation. Psychoneuroendocrinology 4:219–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alfredsson L, Karasek R, Theorell T (1982) Myocardial infarction risk and psychosocial work environment: an analysis of the male Swedish working force. Soc Sci Med 16:463–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angersbach D, Knauth P, Loskant H, Karvonen MJ, Undeutsch K, Rutenfranz J (1980) A retrospective cohort study comparing complaints and diseases in day and shift workers. Int Arch Occ Environ Health 45:127–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anisimov VN, Kvetnoy IM, Chumakova NK et al (1999) Melatonin and colon carcinogenesis. II. Intestinal melatonin-containing cells and serum melatonin level in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors. Exp Toxicol Pathol 51:47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anisimov VN, Popovich IG, Zabezhinski MA (1997) Melatonin and colon carcinogenesis: I. Inhibitory effect of melatonin on development of intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats. Carcinogenesis 18:1549–1553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anonymous (1981) The pineal gland. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  10. Anonymous (2002) Shift work and health, statistics Canada, Ottawa, ONGoogle Scholar
  11. Anonymous (2005) Workers on Flexible and Shift Schedules in 2004 Summary. United States Department of LaborGoogle Scholar
  12. Archer SN, Robilliard DL, Skene DJ et al (2003) A length polymorphism in the circadian clock gene Per3 is linked to delayed sleep phase syndrome and extreme diurnal preference. Sleep 26:413–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arendt J, Deacon S (1997) Treatment of circadian rhythm disorders–melatonin. Chronobiol Int 14:185–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Armstrong BG, Nolin AD, McDonald AD (1989) Work in pregnancy and birth weight for gestational age. Br J Ind Med 46:196–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Aubert C, Janiaud P, Lecalvez J (1980) Effect of pinealectomy and melatonin on mammary tumor growth in Sprague-Dawley rats under different conditions of lighting. J Neural Trans 47:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Axelsson G, Ahlborg G Jr, Bodin L (1996) Shift work, nitrous oxide exposure, and spontaneous abortion among Swedish midwives. Occup Environ Med 53:374–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Axelsson G, Lutz C, Rylander R (1984) Exposure to solvents and outcome of pregnancy in university laboratory employees. Br J Ind Med 41:305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Axelsson G, Rylander R, Molin I (1989) Outcome of pregnancy in relation to irregular and inconvenient work schedules. Br J Ind Med 46:393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bartsch C, Bartsch H, Bellmann O, Lippert TH (1991) Depression of serum melatonin in patients with primary breast cancer is not due to an increased peripheral metabolism. Cancer 67:1681–1684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bartsch C, Bartsch H, Fuchs U, Lippert TH, Bellmann O, Gupta D (1989) Stage-dependent depression of melatonin in patients with primary breast cancer. Correlation with prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, and steroid receptors. Cancer 64:426–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bartsch C, Bartsch H, Jain AK, Laumas KR, Wetterberg L (1981) Urinary melatonin levels in human breast cancer patients. J Neural Transm 52:281–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bartsch C, Bartsch H, Karenovics A, Franz H, Peiker G, Mecke D (1997) Nocturnal urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is decreased in primary breast cancer patients compared to age-matched controls and shows negative correlation with tumor-size. J Pineal Res 23:53–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bisanti L, Olsen J, Basso O, Thonneau P, Karmaus W (1996) Shift work and subfecundity: a European multicenter study. European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity. J Occup Environ Med 38:352–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bittman EL, Kaynard AH, Olster DH, Robinson JE, Yellon SM, Karsch FJ (1985) Pineal melatonin mediates photoperiodic control of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the ewe. Neuroendocrinology 40:409–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blask DE, Brainard GC, Dauchy RT et al (2005) Melatonin-depleted blood from premenopausal women exposed to light at night stimulates growth of human breast cancer xenografts in nude rats. Cancer Res 65:11174–11184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blask DE, Dauchy RT, Sauer LA (2005) Putting cancer to sleep at night: the neuroendocrine/circadian melatonin signal. Endocrine 27:179–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Blask DE, Dauchy RT, Sauer LA, Krause JA, Brainard GC (2002) Light during darkness, melatonin suppression and cancer progression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 23(Suppl 2):52–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Blask DE, Sauer LA, Dauchy R, Holowachuk EW, Ruhoff MS (1999) New actions of melatonin on tumor metabolism and growth. Biol Signals Recept 8:49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Boivin DB, Duffy JF, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA (1996) Dose-response relationships for resetting of human circadian clock by light. Nature 379:540–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brainard GC, Hanifin JP, Rollag MD et al (2001) Human melatonin regulation is not mediated by the three cone photopic visual system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:433–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brzezinski A (1997) Melatonin in humans. N Engl J Med 336:186–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Catt KJ, Dafau ML (1991) Gonadotropic hormones: biosynthesis, secretion, receptors, and actions. In: Yen SSC, Jaffe RB (eds) Reproductive endocrinology. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 144–151Google Scholar
  33. Cini G, Coronnello M, Mini E, Neri B (1998) Melatonin’s growth-inhibitory effect on hepatoma AH 130 in the rat. Cancer Lett 125:51–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Claustrat B, Brun J, Chazot G (2005) The basic physiology and pathophysiology of melatonin. Sleep Med Rev 9:11–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Colligan MJ, Frock IJ, Tasto D (1980) Shift work – the incidence of medication use and physical complaints as a function of shift. US Dept of Health, Education and Welfare: NIOSH Publication, Washington, pp 80–105Google Scholar
  36. Cos S, Fernandez F, Sanchez-Barcelo EJ (1996) Melatonin inhibits DNA synthesis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro. Life Sci 58:2447–2453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cos S, Fernandez R, Guezmes A, Sanchez-Barcelo EJ (1998) Influence of melatonin on invasive and metastatic properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 58:4383–4390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cos S, Mediavilla MD, Fernandez R, Gonzalez-Lamuno D, Sanchez-Barcelo EJ (2002) Does melatonin induce apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro? J Pineal Res 32:90–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Czeisler CA, Allan JS, Strogatz SH et al (1986) Bright light resets the human circadian pacemaker independent of the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Science 233:667–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Czeisler CA, Duffy JF, Shanahan TL et al (1999) Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker. Science 284:2177–2181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Czeisler CA, Khalsa SBS (1999) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Czeisler CA, Klerman EB (1999) Circadian and sleep-dependent regulation of hormone release in humans. Recent Prog Horm Res 54:97–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Czeisler CA, Wright KP Jr (1999) Neurobiology of sleep and circadian rhythms. Marcel Decker, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Dauchy RT, Blask DE, Sauer LA, Brainard GC, Krause JA (1999) Dim light during darkness stimulates tumor progression by enhancing tumor fatty acid uptake and metabolism. Cancer Lett 144:131–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dauchy RT, Sauer LA, Blask DE, Vaughan GM (1997) Light contamination during the dark phase in “photoperiodically controlled” animal rooms: effect on tumor growth and metabolism in rats. Lab Anim Sci 47:511–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Davis S, Mirick DK, Stevens RG (2001) Night shift work, light at night, and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 93:1557–1562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dement WC, Seidel WF, Cohen SA, Bliwise NG, Carskadon MA (1986) Sleep and wakefulness in aircrew before and after transoceanic flights. Aviat Space Environ Med 57:B14–B28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ebisawa T, Uchiyama M, Kajimura N et al (2001) Association of structural polymorphisms in the human period3 gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome. EMBO Rep 2:342–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Feychting M, Osterlund B, Ahlbom A (1998) Reduced cancer incidence among the blind. Epidemiology 9:490–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fu L, Pelicano H, Liu J, Huang P, Lee C (2002) The circadian gene Period2 plays an important role in tumor suppression and DNA damage response in vivo. Cell 111:41–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hahn RA (1991) Profound bilateral blindness and the incidence of breast cancer. Epidemiology 2:208–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Haldorsen T, Reitan JB, Tveten U (2001) Cancer incidence among Norwegian airline cabin attendants. Int J Epidemiol 30:825–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hansen J (2001) Increased breast cancer risk among women who work predominantly at night. Epidemiology 12:74–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hamilton T (1969) Influence of environmental light and melatonin upon mammary tumour induction. Br J Surg 56:764–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hemminki K, Kyyronen P, Lindbohm ML (1985) Spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring of nurses exposed to anaesthetic gases, cytostatic drugs, and other potential hazards in hospitals, based on registered information of outcome. J Epidemiol Community Health 39:141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hill SM, Blask DE (1988) Effects of the pineal hormone melatonin on the proliferation and morphological characteristics of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in culture. Cancer Res 48:6121–6126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hrushesky WJ, Blask DE (2004) Re: melatonin and breast cancer: a prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:888–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Infante-Rivard C, David M, Gauthier R, Rivard GE (1993) Pregnancy loss and work schedule during pregnancy. Epidemiology 4:73–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jochle W (1964) Trends in photophysiologic concepts. Ann NY Acad Sci 117:88–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Johansson C, Willeit M, Smedh C et al (2003) Circadian clock-related polymorphisms in seasonal affective disorder and their relevance to diurnal preference. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:734–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jull JW (1966) The effect of infection, hormonal environment, and genetic constitution on mammary tumor induction in rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cancer Res 26:2368–2373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kanishi Y, Kobayashi Y, Noda S, Ishizuka B, Saito K (2000) Differential growth inhibitory effect of melatonin on two endometrial cancer cell lines. J Pineal Res 28:227–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Katzenberg D, Young T, Finn L et al (1998) A CLOCK polymorphism associated with human diurnal preference. Sleep 21:569–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ et al (1995) Prospective study of shift work and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation 92:3178–3182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kliukiene J, Tynes T, Andersen A (2001) Risk of breast cancer among Norwegian women with visual impairment. Br J Cancer 84:397–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kloog I, Haim A, Stevens RG, Barchana M, Portnov BA (2008) Light at night co-distributes with incident breast but not lung cancer in the female population of Israel. Chronobiol Int 25:65–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Knutsson A, Akerstedt T, Jonsson BG, Orth-Gomer K (1986) Increased risk of ischaemic heart disease in shift workers. Lancet 2:89–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Knutsson A, Hallquist J, Reuterwall C, Theorell T, Akerstedt T (1999) Shiftwork and myocardial infarction: a case-control study. Occup Environ Med 56:46–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewy AJ, Sack RL, Miller LS, Hoban TM (1987) Antidepressant and circadian phase-shifting effects of light. Science 235:352–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lewy AJ, Wehr TA, Goodwin FK, Newsome DA, Markey SP (1980) Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans. Science 210:1267–1269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lie JA, Roessink J, Kjaerheim K (2006) Breast cancer and night work among Norwegian nurses. Cancer Causes Control 17:39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Linnersjo A, Hammar N, Dammstrom BG, Johansson M, Eliasch H (2003) Cancer incidence in airline cabin crew: experience from Sweden. Occup Environ Med 60:810–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lynch HJ, Deng MH, Wurtman RJ (1984) Light intensities required to suppress nocturnal melatonin secretion in albino and pigmented rats. Life Sci 35:841–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lynge E (1996) Risk of breast cancer is also increased among Danish female airline cabin attendants. BMJ 312:253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mamelle N, Laumon B, Lazar P (1984) Prematurity and occupational activity during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 119:309–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Marelli MM, Limonta P, Maggi R, Motta M, Moretti RM (2000) Growth-inhibitory activity of melatonin on human androgen-independent DU 145 prostate cancer cells. Prostate 45:238–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B et al (1988) Fetal death and work in pregnancy. Br J Ind Med 45:148–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, Cherry NM, Nolin AD, Robert D (1988) Prematurity and work in pregnancy. Br J Ind Med 45:56–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McIntyre IM, Norman TR, Burrows GD, Armstrong SM (1989) Human melatonin suppression by light is intensity dependent. J Pineal Res 6:149–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McIntyre IM, Norman TR, Burrows GD, Armstrong SM (1990) Melatonin supersensitivity to dim light in seasonal affective disorder. Lancet 335:488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mediavilla MD, Cos S, Sanchez-Barcelo EJ (1999) Melatonin increases p53 and p21WAF1 expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro. Life Sci 65:415–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Megdal SP, Kroenke CH, Laden F, Pukkala E, Schernhammer ES (2005) Night work and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer 41:2023–2032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mhatre MC, Shah PN, Juneja HS (1984) Effect of varying photoperiods on mammary morphology, DNA synthesis, and hormone profile in female rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 72:1411–1416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller BH, Olson SL, Turek FW, Levine JE, Horton TH, Takahashi JS (2004) Circadian clock mutation disrupts estrous cyclicity and maintenance of pregnancy. Curr Biol 14:1367–1373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Minors DS, Scott AR, Waterhouse JM (1986) Circadian arrhythmia: shiftwork, travel and health. J Soc Occup Med 36:39–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mocchegiani E, Perissin L, Santarelli L et al (1999) Melatonin administration in tumor-bearing mice (intact and pinealectomized) in relation to stress, zinc, thymulin and IL-2. Int J Immunopharmacol 21:27–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Moretti RM, Marelli MM, Maggi R, Dondi D, Motta M, Limonta P (2000) Antiproliferative action of melatonin on human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Oncol Rep 7:347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Musatov SA, Anisimov VN, Andre V, Vigreux C, Godard T, Sichel F (1999) Effects of melatonin on N-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced carcinogenesis in rats and mutagenesis in vitro (Ames test and COMET assay). Cancer Lett 138:37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nurminen T (1989) Shift work, fetal development and course of pregnancy. Scand J Work Environ Health 15:395–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pandi-Perumal SR, Smits M, Spence W et al (2007) Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO): a tool for the analysis of circadian phase in human sleep and chronobiological disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Panzer A, Lottering ML, Bianchi P, Glencross DK, Stark JH, Seegers JC (1998) Melatonin has no effect on the growth, morphology or cell cycle of human breast cancer (MCF-7), cervical cancer (HeLa), osteosarcoma (MG-63) or lymphoblastoid (TK6) cells. Cancer Lett 122:17–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Parry BL, Newton RP (2001) Chronobiological basis of female-specific mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:S102–S108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Penny R, Stanczyk F, Goebelsmann U (1987) Melatonin: data consistent with a role in controlling ovarian function. J Endocrinol Invest 10:499–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Petranka J, Baldwin W, Biermann J, Jayadev S, Barrett JC, Murphy E (1999) The oncostatic action of melatonin in an ovarian carcinoma cell line. J Pineal Res 26:129–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Philo R, Berkowitz AS (1988) Inhibition of Dunning tumor growth by melatonin. J Urol 139:1099–1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pukkala E, Auvinen A, Wahlberg G (1995) Incidence of cancer among finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967–92. BMJ 311:649–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Pukkala E, Verkasalo PK, Ojamo M, Rudanko SL (1999) Visual impairment and cancer: a population-based cohort study in Finland. Cancer Causes Control 10:13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Quera-Salva MA, Defrance R, Claustrat B, De Lattre J, Guilleminault C (1996) Rapid shift in sleep time and acrophase of melatonin secretion in short shift work schedule. Sleep 19:539–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rafnsson V, Tulinius H, Jonasson JG, Hrafnkelsson J (2001) Risk of breast cancer in female flight attendants: a population-based study (Iceland). Cancer Causes Control 12:95–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Reppert SM, Weaver DR (2001) Molecular analysis of mammalian circadian rhythms. Annu Rev Physiol 63:647–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reynolds P, Cone J, Layefsky M, Goldberg DE, Hurley S (2002) Cancer incidence in California flight attendants (United States). Cancer Causes Control 13:317–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rimler A, Lupowitz Z, Zisapel N (2002) Differential regulation by melatonin of cell growth and androgen receptor binding to the androgen response element in prostate cancer cells. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 23(Suppl 1):45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Robinson JE (1987) Photoperiodic and steroidal regulation of the luteinizing pulse generator in ewes. In: Crowley WF, Hofler JG (eds) The episodic secretion of hormones. Wiley, New York, p 159Google Scholar
  104. Robinson JE, Kaynard AH, Karsch FJ (1986) Does melatonin alter pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ewe? Neuroendocrinology 43:635–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Tan DX, Leon J, Manchester L, Reiter RJ (2005) Melatonin reduces prostate cancer cell growth leading to neuroendocrine differentiation via a receptor and PKA independent mechanism. Prostate 63:29–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Salin-Pascual RJ, Ortega-Soto H, Huerto-Delgadillo L, Camacho-Arroyo I, Roldan-Roldan G, Tamarkin L (1988) The effect of total sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin and cortisol in healthy human volunteers. Sleep 11:362–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sandyk R (1992) The pineal gland and the menstrual cycle. Int J Neurosci 63:197–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Santhi N, Duffy JF, Horowitz TS, Czeisler CA (2005) Scheduling of sleep/darkness affects the circadian phase of night shift workers. Neurosci Lett 384:316–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schernhammer ES, Berrino F, Krogh V et al (2008) Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 100:898–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schernhammer ES, Hankinson SE (2005) Urinary melatonin levels and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:1084–1087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schernhammer ES, Kroenke CH, Laden F, Hankinson SE (2006) Night work and risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology 17:108–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE et al (2001) Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the nurses' health study. J Natl Cancer Inst 93:1563–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schernhammer ES, Rosner B, Willett WC, Laden F, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE (2004) Epidemiology of urinary melatonin in women and its relation to other hormones and night work. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:936–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Shah PN, Mhatre MC, Kothari LS (1984) Effect of melatonin on mammary carcinogenesis in intact and pinealectomized rats in varying photoperiods. Cancer Res 44:3403–3407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Shiu SY, Li L, Xu JN, Pang CS, Wong JT, Pang SF (1999) Melatonin-induced inhibition of proliferation and G1/S cell cycle transition delay of human choriocarcinoma JAr cells: possible involvement of MT2 (MEL1B) receptor. J Pineal Res 27:183–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Siu SW, Lau KW, Tam PC, Shiu SY (2002) Melatonin and prostate cancer cell proliferation: interplay with castration, epidermal growth factor, and androgen sensitivity. Prostate 52:106–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Skene DJ, Bojkowski CJ, Currie JE, Wright J, Boulter PS, Arendt J (1990) 6-sulphatoxymelatonin production in breast cancer patients. J Pineal Res 8:269–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Steenland K, Fine L (1996) Shift work, shift change, and risk of death from heart disease at work. Am J Ind Med 29:278–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Subramanian A, Kothari L (1991) Melatonin, a suppressor of spontaneous murine mammary tumors. J Pineal Res 10:136–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sze SF, Ng TB, Liu WK (1993) Antiproliferative effect of pineal indoles on cultured tumor cell lines. J Pineal Res 14:27–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tamarkin L, Cohen M, Roselle D, Reichert C, Lippman M, Chabner B (1981) Melatonin inhibition and pinealectomy enhancement of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in the rat. Cancer Res 41:4432–4436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Tamarkin L, Danforth D, Lichter A et al (1982) Decreased nocturnal plasma melatonin peak in patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Science 216:1003–1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tenkanen L, Sjoblom T, Kalimo R, Alikoski T, Harma M (1997) Shift work, occupation and coronary heart disease over 6 years of follow-up in the Helsinki Heart Study. Scand J Work Environ Health 23:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Tepas DI (1982) Work/sleep time schedules and performance. In: Webb WB (ed) Biological rhythms, sleep and performance. John Wiley, Chichester, p 175Google Scholar
  125. Tepas DI, Sullivan PJ (1982) Does body temperature predict sleep length, sleepiness, and mood in a lab-bound population? Sleep Res 11:42Google Scholar
  126. Touitou Y, Motohashi Y, Reinberg A et al (1990) Effect of shift work on the night-time secretory patterns of melatonin, prolactin, cortisol and testosterone. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 60:288–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Travis RC, Allen DS, Fentiman IS, Key TJ (2004) Melatonin and breast cancer: a prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:475–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tuchsen F (1993) Working hours and ischaemic heart disease in Danish men: a 4-year cohort study of hospitalization. Int J Epidemiol 22:215–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tynes T, Hannevik M, Andersen A, Vistnes AI, Haldorsen T (1996) Incidence of breast cancer in Norwegian female radio and telegraph operators. Cancer Causes Control 7:197–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Uehata T, Sasakawa N (1982) The fatigue and maternity disturbances of night workwomen. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo) 11(Suppl):465–474Google Scholar
  131. Verkasalo PK, Lillberg K, Stevens RG et al (2005) Sleep duration and breast cancer: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Res 65:9595–9600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Verkasalo PK, Pukkala E, Stevens RG, Ojamo M, Rudanko SL (1999) Inverse association between breast cancer incidence and degree of visual impairment in Finland. Br J Cancer 80:1459–1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vijayalaxmi TCR Jr, Reiter RJ, Herman TS (2002) Melatonin: from basic research to cancer treatment clinics. J Clin Oncol 20:2575–2601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Voordouw BC, Euser R, Verdonk RE et al (1992) Melatonin and melatonin-progestin combinations alter pituitary-ovarian function in women and can inhibit ovulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 74:108–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wartenberg D, Stapleton CP (1998) Risk of breast cancer is also increased among retired US female airline cabin attendants. BMJ 316:1902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wehr TA, Giesen HA, Moul DE, Turner EH, Schwartz PJ (1995) Suppression of men’s responses to seasonal changes in day length by modern artificial lighting. Am J Physiol 269:R173–R178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Wetterberg L (1993) Light and biological rhythms in man. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  138. Winget CM, DeRoshia CW, Markley CL, Holley DC (1984) A review of human physiological and performance changes associated with desynchronosis of biological rhythms. Aviat Space Environ Med 55:1085–1096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wurtman RJ, Axelrod J (1965) The Pineal gland. Sci Am 213:50–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Xi SC, Tam PC, Brown GM, Pang SF, Shiu SY (2000) Potential involvement of mt1 receptor and attenuated sex steroid-induced calcium influx in the direct anti-proliferative action of melatonin on androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. J Pineal Res 29:172–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Xu X, Ding M, Li B, Christiani DC (1994) Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China. Occup Environ Med 51:470–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Yellon SM, Foster DL (1986) Melatonin rhythms time photoperiod-induced puberty in the female lamb. Endocrinology 119:44–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yie SM, Brown GM, Liu GY et al (1995) Melatonin and steroids in human pre-ovulatory follicular fluid: seasonal variations and granulosa cell steroid production. Hum Reprod 10:50–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ying SW, Niles LP, Crocker C (1993) Human malignant melanoma cells express high-affinity receptors for melatonin: antiproliferative effects of melatonin and 6-chloromelatonin. Eur J Pharmacol 246:89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zhu JL, Hjollund NH, Andersen AM, Olsen J (2004) Shift work, job stress, and late fetal loss: The National Birth Cohort in Denmark. J Occup Environ Med 46:1144–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zhu JL, Hjollund NH, Olsen J (2004) Shift work, duration of pregnancy, and birth weight: The National Birth Cohort in Denmark. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:285–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zhu Y, Brown HN, Zhang Y, Stevens RG, Zheng T (2005) Period3 structural variation: a circadian biomarker associated with breast cancer in young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:268–270PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations