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The Emergence of New Socioeconomic Strategies in the Middle and Late Holocene Pacific Northwest Region of North America

  • Anna Marie Prentiss
Chapter

Abstract

Macroevolutionary archaeology recognizes that evolutionary forces act in complex ways on cultural entities spanning a range of scales from simple artifact-based traits to population-held emergent characters like socioeconomic strategies. Evolutionary origins of these complex characters can be difficult to identify and understand, particularly in ancient contexts lacking written records. This chapter outlines theories of emergent fitness, emergent characters, and adaptive landscapes as a step toward explanation of cultural macroevolutionary process. Case studies consider the evolution of complex hunter-gatherer societies from North America’s Pacific Northwest. The study indicates that new socioeconomic strategies evolved in short-lived events resulting from fortuitous decision making by small groups in patchy, sometimes socially isolated ecological contexts. Once present, the strategies dispersed into adjacent areas probably via actual population expansion but also via cultural transmission. Study results suggest that both biological and cultural fitness may play significant roles in the emergence and dispersal of complex cultural variants when examined on macroevolutionary scales.

Keywords

Central Coast Adaptive Landscape Resource Management Strategy Northwest Coast Residential Permanence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Figure 4.1 was partially drafted by Nathan Goodale. Figure 4.3 was drafted by Mark Fritch. I thank Mike Lenert for his comments on the paper and Jim Chatters for years of stimulating and insightful discussions. Archaeological research at the Bridge River and Keatley Creek sites was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Inc., and The University of Montana.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyThe University of MontanaMissoulaUSA

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