One of the most challenging issues in wireless communications is how to cope with a reduction of the received signal-to-oise power ratio (SNR) at the remote receiver. The fluctuation of the SNR can be caused by several phenomena such as path loss, shadowing, and multipath fading . Beamforming is one of the techniques that can cope with this problem. Suppose that the transmitter is equipped with multiple antennas. If the same signal is transmitted from geometrically separated multiple antennas, even without multipath the instantaneous power of the received signal can vary depending on the eometrical locations of the transmit antennas and the receive antenna. This is due to the same mechanism as that of ultipath fading. In other words, by sending the same signal from the multiple antennas, the transmitter is artificially reating multipath fading.
KeywordsSensor Node Outage Probability Antenna Element Beam Pattern Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function
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