Complex Oxide Schottky Junctions

  • Yasuyuki Hikita
  • Harold Y. Hwang


A Schottky junction is not only an important heterostructure for electronic and optical devices, but is also an ideal system for studying fundamental interface physical phenomena such as band-offsets, band bending, and interface states. In this chapter, we focus our attention on the complex oxides with the perovskite structure. This family of materials exhibit unique physical properties including ferroelectricity, magnetism and high temperature superconductivity. We will describe how to incorporate the strong interaction between charge, lattice and spins, absent in conventional semiconductors, in describing oxide Schottky junctions, and present new oxide specific functionalities. After a brief overview of the history of complex oxide Schottky junctions (Sect. 5.1), the basics of Schottky junctions are reviewed (Sect. 5.2). The specific features of oxide Schottky junctions will be introduced focusing on band bending and band alignment mechanisms (Sect. 5.3) followed by examples of novel functionalities achievable in oxide Schottky junctions (Sect. 5.4). This Chapter will close with a summary and a future outlook (Sect. 5.5).


Barrier Height Versus Characteristic Interface State Relative Permittivity Resistance Switching 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Goodenough JB (1971) Prog Solid Stat Chem 5:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tsuda N, Nasu K, Fujimori A, Siratori K (2000) Electronic conduction in oxides, 2nd rev. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Imada M, Fujimori A, Tokura Y (1998) Rev Mod Phys 70:1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galasso FS (1970) Structure and properties of inorganic solids. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chrisey DB, Hubler GK (1994) Pulsed laser deposition of thin films. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kawasaki M, Takahashi K, Maeda T, Tsuchiya R, Shinohara M, Ishiyama O, Yonezawa T, Yoshimoto M, Koinuma H (1994) Science 266:1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koster G, Kropman BL, Rijnders GJHM, Blank DHA, Rogalla H (1998) Appl Phys Lett 73:2920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mukunoki Y, Nakagawa N, Susaki T, Hwang HY (2005) Appl Phys Lett 86:171908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ohtomo A, Muller DA, Grazul JL, Hwang HY (2002) Nature 419:378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ohtomo A, Hwang HY (2004) Nature 427:423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Okamoto S, Millis AJ (2004) Nature 428:630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nakagawa N, Hwang HY, Muller DA (2006) Nature Mater 5:204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hamann DR, Muller DA, Hwang HY (2006) Phys Rev B 73:195403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huijben M, Rijnders G, Blank DHA, Bals S, van Aert S, Verbeeck J, van Tendeloo G, Brinkman A, Hilgenkamp H (2006) Nature Mater 5:556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yunoki S, Moreo A, Dagotto E, Okamoto S, Kancharla SS, Fujimori A (2007) Phys Rev B 76:064532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smadici S, Abbamonte P, Bhattacharya A, Zhai X, Jiang B, Rusydi A, Eckstein JN, Bader SD, Zuo J-M (2007) Phys Rev Lett 99:196404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chakhalian J, Freeland JW, Habermeier H-U, Cristiani G, Khaliullin G, van Veenendaal M, Keimer B (2007) Science 318:1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hotta Y, Susaki T, Hwang HY (2007) Phys Rev Lett 99:236805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cen C, Thiel S, Hammerl G, Schneider CW, Andersen KE, Hellberg CS, Mannhart J, Levy J (2008) Nature Mater 7:298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okamoto S, Maier ThA (2008) Phys Rev Lett 101:156401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gozar A, Logvenov G, Fitting Kourkoutis L, Bollinger AT, Giannuzzi LA, Muller DA, Bozovic I (2008) Nature 455:782Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pentcheva R, Pickett W (2008) Phys Rev B 78:205106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Caviglia AD, Gariglio S, Reyren N, Jaccard D, Schneider T, Gabay M, Thiel S, Hammerl G, Mannhart J, Triscone J-M (2008) Nature 456:624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Popovic ZS, Satpathy S, Martin RM (2008) Phys Rev Lett 101:256801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Levy A, Falck JP, Kastner MA, Gallagher WJ, Gupta A, Kleinsasser AW (1991) J Appl Phys 69:4439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mannhart J, Schlom DG, Bednorz JG, Muller KA (1991) Phys Rev Lett 67:2099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xi XX, Doughty C, Walkenhorst A, Kwon C, Li Q, Venkatesan T (1992) Phys Rev Lett 68:1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Atalla MM, Soshea RW (1963) Solid-State Electron 6:245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Suzuki H, Yamamoto T, Suzuki S, Iyori M, Takahashi K, Usuki T, Yoshisato Y, Nakano S (1993) Jpn J Appl Phys 32:783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Toda F, Abe H, Ogiwara M (1993) IEEE Electron Device Lett 14:100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yamamoto T, Suzuki S, Suzuki H, Kawaugchi K, Takahashi K, Yoshisato Y (1997) Jpn J Appl Phys 36:L390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yamamoto T, Suzuki S, Kawaguchi K, Takahashi K (1998) Jpn J Appl Phys 37:4737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tamura H, Yoshida A, Gotoh K, Hasuo S, Van Duzer T (1991) IEEE Trans Magn 27:2594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yoshida A, Tamura H, Gotoh K, Takauchi H, Hasuo S (1991) J Appl Phys 70:4976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Blom PWM, Wolf RM, Cillessen JFM, Krijn MPCM (1994) Phys Rev Lett 73:2107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Watanabe Y (1998) Phys Rev B 57:R5563; (1999) Phys Rev B 59:11257Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Watanabe Y, Okano M (2001) Appl Phys Lett 78:1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sze SM (1981) Physics of semiconductor devices, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brillson LJ (1982) Surf Sci Rep 2:123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rhoderick EH, Williams RH (1988) Metal–semiconductor contacts, 2nd edn. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tung R (2001) Mater Sci Eng R 35:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kurtin S, McGill TC, Mead CA (1969) Phys Rev Lett 22:1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bardeen J (1947) Phys Rev 71:717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Heine V (1965) Phys Rev 138:A1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spicer WE, Chye PW, Skeath PR, Su CY, Lindau I (1979) J Vac Sci Technol 16:1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hasegawa H, Ohno H (1986) J Vac Sci Technol B 4:1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tung R (2000) Phys Rev Lett 84:6078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Padovani FA, Stratton R (1966) Solid-State Electron 9:695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fonash SJ (1983) J Appl Phys 54:1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Margaritondo G, Rowe JE, Christman SB (1976) Phys Rev B 14:5396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hecht MH (1990) Phys Rev B 41:7918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fowler RH (1931) Phys Rev 38:45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Crowell CR, Sze SM, Spitzer WG (1964) Appl Phys Lett 4:91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sze SM, Moll JL, Sugano T (1964) Solid-State Electron 7:509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dalal VL (1971) J App Phys 42:2274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Noland JA (1954) Phys Rev 94:724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tufte ON, Chapman PW (1967) Phys Rev 155:796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Frederikse HPR, Hosler WR (1967) Phys Rev 161:822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lee C, Yahia J, Brebner JL (1971) Phys Rev B 3:2525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Müller KA, Burkard H (1979) Phys Rev B 19:3593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sawaguchi E, Kikuchi A, Kodera Y (1962) J Phys Soc Jpn 17:1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Saifi MA, Cross LE (1970) Phys Rev B 2:677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Carnes JE, Goodman AM (1967) J Appl Phys 38:3091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hasegawa H, Nishino T (1991) J Appl Phys 69:1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Naito M, Sato H (1994) Physica C 229:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yoshimoto M, Maeda T, Shimozono K, Koinuma H, Shinohara M, Ishiyama O, Ohtani F (1994) Appl Phys Lett 65:3197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Shimizu T, Okushi H (1999) J Appl Phys 85:7244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Inoue A, Izumisawa K, Uwe H (2001) Jpn J Appl Phys 40:3153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Barrett JH (1952) Phys Rev 86:118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Susaki T, Kozuka Y, Tateyama Y, Hwang HY (2007) Phys Rev B 76:155110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Eom CB, Cava RJ, Fleming RM, Phillips JM, van Dover RB, Marshall JH, Hsu JWP, Krajewski JJ, Peck WF, Jr. (1992) Science 258:1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hikita Y, Kozuka Y, Susaki T, Takagi H, Hwang HY (2007) Appl Phys Lett 90:143507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fujii T, Kawasaki M, Sawa A, Kawazoe Y, Akoh H, Tokura Y (2007) Phys Rev B 75:165101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goodman AM, Perkins DM (1964) J Appl Phys 35:3351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stoecky B (1980) Appl Phys Lett 36:384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sroubek Z (1970) Phys Rev B 2:3170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fang X, Kobayashi T (1999) Appl Phys A 69:S587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Robertson J, Chen CW (1999) Appl Phys Lett 74:1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Minohara M, Ohkubo I, Kumigashira H, Oshima M (2007) Appl Phys Lett 90:132123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Katsufuji T, Tokura Y (1994) Phys Rev B 50:2704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Miyasaka S, Okuda T, Tokura Y (2000) Phys Rev Lett 85:5388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Urushibara A, Moritomo Y, Arima T, Asamitsu A, Kido G, Tokura Y (1995) Phys Rev B 51:14103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sawa A, Yamamoto A, Yamada H, Fujii T, Kawasaki M, Matsuno J, Tokura Y (2007) Appl Phys Lett 90:252102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. Fujimori, A. Ino, J. Matsuno, T. Yoshida, K. Tanaka, T. Mizokawa (2002) J Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 124:127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Matsuno J, Fujimori A, Takeda Y, Takano M (2002) Europhys Lett 59:252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wadati H, Kobayashi D, Kumigashira H, Okazaki K, Mizokawa T, Fujimori A, Horiba K, Oshima M, Hamada N, Lippmaa M, Kawasaki M, Koinuma H (2005) Phys Rev B 71:035108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hikita Y, Nishikawa M, Yajima T, Hwang HY (2009) Phys Rev B 79:073101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kozuka Y, Susaki T, Hwang HY (2006) Appl Phys Lett 88:142111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lee WC, MacDonald AH (2006) Phys Rev B 74:075106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ruegg A, Pilgram S, Sigrist M (2007) Phys Rev B 75:195117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tokura Y (ed) (2000) Colossal magnetoresistive oxides Gordon and Breach, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Haghiri-Gosnet A-M, Renard J-P (2003) J Phys D: Appl Phys 36:R127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sugiura M, Uragou K, Noda M, Tachiki M, Kobayashi T (1999) Jpn J Appl Phys 38:2675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tanaka H, Zhang J, Kawai T (2001) Phys Rev Lett 88:027204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sun JR, Xiong CM, Zhao TY, Zhang SY, Chen YF, Shen BG (2004) Appl Phys Lett 84:1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wang DJ, Xie YW, Xiong CM, Shen BG, Sun JR (2006) Europhys Lett 73:401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sheng ZG, Song WH, Sun YP, Sun JR, Shen BG (2005) Appl Phys Lett 87:032501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jin KJ, Lu HB, Zhou QL, Zhao K, Cheng BL, Chen ZH, Zhou YL, Yang GZ (2005) Phys Rev B 71:184428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Matsuno J, Sawa A, Kawasaki M, Tokura Y (2008) Appl Phys Lett 92:122104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Postma FM, Ramaneti R, Banerjee T, Gokcan H, Haq E, Blank DHA, Jansen R, Lodder CJ (2004) J Appl Phys 95:7324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sawa A, Fujii T, Kawasaki M, Tokura Y (2005) Appl Phys Lett 86:112508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nakagawa N, Asai M, Mukunoki Y, Susaki T, Hwang HY (2005) Appl Phys Lett 86:082504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Susaki T, Nakagawa N, Hwang HY (2007) Phys Rev B 75:104409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wang DJ, Sun JR, Lu WM, Xie YW, Liang S, Shen BG (2007) J Phys D: Appl Phys 40:5075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wang DJ, Sun JR, Xie YW, Lu WM, Liang S, Zhao TY, Shen BG (2007) Appl Phys Lett 91:062503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chen YF, Ziese M, Esquinazi P (2007) J Appl Phys 101:123906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ahn CH, Bhattacharya A, Di Ventra M, Eckstein JN, Frisbie CD, Gershenson ME, Goldman AM, Inoue IH, Mannhart J, Millis AJ, Morpurgo AF, Natelson D, Triscone J-M (2006) Rev Mod Phys 78:1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Katsu H, Tanaka H, Kawai T (2001) J Appl Phys 90:4578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Muraoka Y, Hiroi Z (2003) J Phys Soc Jpn 72:781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Muraoka Y, Yamauchi T, Muramatsu T, Yamaura J, Hiroi Z (2004) J Magn Magn Mater 272–276:448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Muraoka Y, Muramatsu T, Hiroi Z (2005) Thin Solid Films 486:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Eguchi R, Tsuda S, Kiss T, Chainani A, Muraoka Y, Hiroi Z, Shin S (2007) Phys Rev B 75:073102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Muramatsu T, Muraoka Y, Yamauchi T, Yamaura J, Hiroi Z (2004) J Magn Magn Mater 272–276:e787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hikita Y, Fitting Kourkoutis L, Susaki T, Muller DA, Takagi H, Hwang HY (2008) Phys Rev B 77:205330Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cao G, Chikara S, Lin XN, Elhami E, Durairaj V, Shlottmann P (2005) Phys Rev B 71:035104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tsu R, Esaki L (1973) Appl Phys Lett 22:562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dearnaley G, Steoneham AM, Morgan DV (1970) Rep Prog Phys 33:1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pgnia H, Sotnik N (1988) Phys Status Solidi a108:11Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Liu SQ, Wu NJ, Ignatiev A (2000) Appl Phys Lett 76:2749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Beck A, Bednorz JG, Gerber Ch, Rossel C, Widmer D (2000) Appl Phys Lett 77:139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sawa A (2008) Mater Today 11:28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kato H, Kudo A (2003) Catal Today 78:561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Diamant Y, Chappel S, Chen SG, Melamed O, Zaban A (2004) Coord Chem Rev 248:1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations