Disease Ecology

  • Felicia Keesing
  • Richard S. Ostfeld


In his 2008 strategic vision for the National Institutes of Health of the United States, Director Elias Zerhouni argued that medical care in the twenty-first century needs to be redirected (Zerhouni 2008). Despite progress in the practice of preventive medicine, he stated, most treatment still focuses on late intervention, once a patient’s symptoms are already apparent. We need, he argued, to move instead toward “preemptive medicine” in which the development of symptoms is prevented altogether. Zerhouni illustrated this new approach by describing the discovery of genes that predispose certain individuals to particular diseases. With this knowledge, he argued, public health care providers could focus on prevention and early diagnosis in high-risk patients, rather than just on treatment.


West Nile Virus Lyme Disease Mycobacterium Bovis Infected Cattle Bovine Tuberculosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyBard CollegeAnnandaleUSA
  2. 2.Cary Institute of Ecosystem StudiesMillbrookUSA

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