In Part I of this book the activity system as a theoretical model for analyzing and interpreting research on equity and quality in mathematics education was introduced. In Part II of the book, the stepwise multiple regression model was used to analyze TIMSS 2003 data and to investigate the relative differential impact of selected school-related contextual variables on mathematics achievement in order to identify those factors that contribute to inequities in mathematics education in each of the 18 countries and compare these factors across countries. It looks as if two methodologies that are conceptually incompatible are being used. Activity theory research suggests that there is a methodological discrepancy between research based on activity theory and research based on contextual theories because of conceptual differences between the two types of theories. This section explores this methodological discrepancy and attempts to rationalize the use of a hybrid methodology of the two theories in this book.


Teaching Mathematics Activity Theory School Climate Mathematics Achievement Mathematics Lesson 
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  1. Chrostowski, S. (2004). Developing the TIMSS 2003 background questionnaires. In M. O. Martin, I. V. S. Mullis, & S. J. Chrostowski (Eds.), TIMSS 2003 technical report. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.Google Scholar
  2. Martin, O. (2005b). TIMSS 2003 user guide for the international database-supplement 1. Boston: Boston College.Google Scholar
  3. Martin, O. (2005c). TIMSS 2003 User guide for the international database-supplement 3. Boston, MA: Boston College.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag US 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EducationAmerican University of Beirut (AUB)BeirutLebanon

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