High-Frequency Low-Penetrance Alleles

  • Paul Pharoah
Part of the Cancer Genetics book series (CANGENETICS)


Breast cancer, like other common cancers, tends to cluster in families, with disease being approximately twofold more common in first-degree relatives of cases [1–3]. The higher rate of most cancers in the monozygotic twins of cases than in dizygotic twins or siblings suggests that most of the familial clustering is the result of genetic variation rather than lifestyle or environmental factors [4,5]. Furthermore, simulation studies have shown that even if an environmental factor is perfectly correlated among relatives, it needs to confer at least a 10-fold increase in risk to result in even modest increases in familial relative risk


Breast Cancer Risk Allele Candidate Gene Study Polygenic Model CHEK2 1100delc 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OncologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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