Current references represent important building blocks in bipolar and CMOS designs. They usually act as biasing structures that deserve other applications, but, sometimes, they can be used as independent circuits. The most used, PTAT (proportional to absolute temperature) current references represent essential blocks in a voltage reference, required for compensating the negative decrease with temperature term from base–emitter, gate–source, or threshold voltages or for biasing the active device from the voltage reference core. CTAT (complementary to absolute temperature) current references have an approximately negative linear decrease on temperature variation, a design that fulfills the complementary of PTAT and CTAT currents presenting an improved temperature behavior. PTAT2 and PTAT n currents represent the basis of implementing superior-order curvature-correction techniques in order to obtain an extremely low temperature coefficient of the voltage reference.
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