Advertisement

Self-Control and the Management of Violence

  • Charles R. Tittle
Chapter

Abstract

Extensive empirical evidence suggests that self-control plays an important part in the production of violence and other criminal acts. Therefore, it would seem that any policies designed to control violence must pay attention to weak self-control and ways to improve it or to counter its influences. However, effective policies rest on fuller accounts than those provided by self-control theory. Several potential weaknesses in the theory make it problematic for fashioning programs to control misconduct. Six such weaknesses and their potential implications are identified, and ways of overcoming those deficiencies are offered. It is concluded that self-control theory holds promise as a beginning for policy formation but it must be elaborated and integrated with other theories before it is likely to provide effective guidance.

Keywords

Crime Rate Criminal Behavior Collective Efficacy Social Disorganization Social Unit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnew, R. (1999). A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36, 123–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnew, R., Brezina, T., Wright, J. P., and Cullen, F. T. (2002). Strain, personality traits, and delinquency: extending general strain theory. Criminology, 40, 43–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akers, R. L. (1991). Self-control as a general theory of crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 7, 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akers, R. L. (1998). Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Akers, R. L. (2000). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application, 3rd Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  7. Akers, R. L. and Jensen, G. F. (Eds.) (2003). Social Learning Theory and the Explanation of Crime. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the Streets: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  9. Antonaccio, O. and Tittle, C. R. (2008). Morality, self-control, and crime. Criminology, 46, 479–510.Google Scholar
  10. Arneklev, B. J., Grasmick, H. G., Tittle, C. R., and Bursik, R. J., Jr. (1993). Low self-control and imprudent behavior. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 9, 255–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arneklev, B. J., Cochran, J. K., and Gainey, R. R. (1998). Testing Gottfredson and Hirschi’s “low self-control” stability hypothesis: An exploratory study. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 23, 107–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barlow, H. D. (1991). Explaining crime and analogous acts, or the unrestrained will grab at pleasure whenever they can. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baumeister, R. F. and Exline, J. J. (2000). Self-control, morality, and human strength. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 29–42.Google Scholar
  14. Benda, B. B. (2005). The robustness of self-control in relation to form of delinquency. Youth and Society, 36, 418–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benson, M. L. and Moore, E. (1992). Are white collar and common offenders the same? An empirical and theoretical critique of a recently proposed general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 29, 251–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, Shame, and Reintegration. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bursik, R. J. Jr. (1988). Social disorganization theories of crime and delinquency: problems and prospects. Criminology, 26, 519–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bursik, R. J. Jr. and Grasmick, H. G. (1993). Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimension of Effective Community Control. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  19. Bursik, R. J. Jr. and Grasmick, H. G. (1995). Neighborhood-based networks and the control of crime and delinquency. In H. Barlow (Ed.), Crime and Public Policy: Putting Theory to Work (pp. 107–130). Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  20. Burt, C. H., Simons, R. L., and Simons, L. G. (2006). A longitudinal test of the effects of parenting and stability of self-control. Negative evidence for the general theory of crime. Criminology, 44, 353–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burton, V. S. Jr., Cullen, F. T., Evans, T. D., Fiftal Alarid, L., and Dunaway, R. G. (1998). Gender, self-control, and crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35, 123–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burton, V. S. Jr., Evans, T. D., Cullen, F. T., Ovares, K. M., and Dunaway, G. R. (1999). Age, self-control, and adults’s offending behaviors: a research note assessing a general theory of crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 27, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cauffman, E., Steinberg, L., and Piquero, A. (2005). Psychological, neuropsychological and physiological correlates of serious and anti-social behavior in adolescence: the role of self-control. Criminology, 43, 133–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chapple, C. L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 22, 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cochran, J. K., Wood, P. B., Sellers, C. S., Wikerson, W., and Chamlin, M. B. (1998). Academic dishonesty and low self-control: an empirical test of a general theory of crime. Deviant Behavior, 19, 227–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen, L. E. and Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: a routine activities approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Colvin, M., Cullen, F. T., and Vander Ven, T. (2002). Coercion, social support, and crime: an emerging theoretical consensus. Criminology, 40, 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Li, S. (2004). The impacts of self-control and social bonds on juvenile delinquency in a national sample of midadolescents. Deviant Behavior, 25, 351–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Doherty, E. E. (2006). Self-control, social bonds, and desistance: a test of life-course interdependence. Criminology, 44, 807–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Durkheim, E. (1933) [1893]. Emile Durkheim on the Division of Labor in Society. Being a Translation of his De La Division du Travail Sociale. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  31. Ellis, L. (1987). Religiosity and criminality from the perspective of arousal theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 24, 215–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Evans, T. D., Cullen, F. T., Burton, V. S. Jr., Dunaway, G. R., and Benson, M. L. (1997). The social consequences of self-control: testing the general theory of crime. Criminology, 35, 475–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farrington, D. P. (2000). Explaining and preventing crime: the globalization of knowledge—the American Society of Criminology 1999 presidential address. Criminology, 38, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Feldman, S. S. and Weinberger, D. A. (1994). Self-restraint as a mediator of family influence son boys’ delinquent behavior: a longitudinal study. Child Development, 65, 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Felson, M. (1998). Crime in Everyday Life: Insights and Implications for Society, 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.Google Scholar
  36. Felson, R. B. and Staff, J. (2006). Explaining the academic performance-delinquency relationship. Criminology, 44, 299–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Geis, G. (2000). On the absence of self-control as the basis for a genrral theory of crime: a critique. Theoretical Criminology, 4, 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gibbs, J. J., Giever, D., and Maretin, J. S. (1998). Parental management and self-control: an empirical test of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35, 40–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gibbs, J. J., Giever, D., and Higgins, G. F. (2003). A test of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory using structural equation modeling. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30, 441–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giner-Sorolla, R. (2001). Guilty pleasure and grim necessities: affective attitudes in dilemmmas of self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 206–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gottfredson, M. R. and Hirschi, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Gottfredson, M. R. and Hirschi, T. (2003). Self-control and opportunity. In C. L. Britt and M. R. Gottfredson (Eds.), Control Theories of Crime and Delinquency (pp. 5–39). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Grasmick, H. G., Tittle, C. R., Bursik, R. J. Jr., and Arneklev, B. J. (1993). Testing the core empirical implications of Gottfreson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hay, C. (2001). Parenting, self-control, and delinquency: a test of self-control theory. Criminology, 39, 707–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hay, C. and Forrest, W. (2006). The development of self-control: examining self-control theory’s stability thesis. Criminology, 44, 739–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Higgins, G. and Ricketts, M. L. (2004). Motivation or opportunity: which serves as the best mediator in self-control theory? Western Criminology Review, 5, 77–96.Google Scholar
  47. Hirschi, T. (1989). Exploring alternatives to integrated theory. In S. F. Messner, M. D. Krohn, and A. E. Liska (Eds.), Theoretical Integration in the Study of Deviance and Crime: Problems and Prospects (pp. 37–49). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hirschi, T. (2004). Self-control and crime. In R. F. Baumeister and K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Application (pp. 537–552). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  49. Hirschi, T. and Gottfredson, M. R. (1995). Control theory and the life course perspective. Studies in Crime and Crime Prevention, 4, 131–142.Google Scholar
  50. Hope, T., Harold, G. G., and Pointon, L. (2003). The family in Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime. Sociological Focus, 36, 291–311.Google Scholar
  51. Hwang, S. and Akers, R. L. (2003). Substance use by Korean adolescents: a cross-cultural test of social learning, social bonding, and self-control theories. In R. L. Akers and G. F. Jensen (Eds.), Social Learning Theory and the Explanation of Crime (pp. 39–63). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  52. Jensen, G. F. and Akers, R. L. (2003). Taking social learning global: micro-macro transitions in criminological theory. In R. L. Akers and G. F. Jensen (Eds.), Social Learning Theory and the Explanation of Crime (pp. 9–37). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  53. Katz, J. (1988). The Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  54. Keane, C., Maxim, P. S., and Teevan, J. J. (1993). Drinking and driving, self-control, and gender: testing a general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 30–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. LaGrange, T. C. and Silverman, R. A. (1999). Low self-control and opportunity: testing the general theory of crime as an explanation for gender differences in delinquency. Criminology, 37, 41–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Latimore, L. T., Tittle, C. R., and Grasmick, H. G. (2006). Child rearing, self-control, and crime: additional evidence. Sociological Inquiry, 76, 343–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leblanc, M. (2006). Self-control and social control of deviant behavior in context: development and interactions along the life course. In P.-O. H. Wikström and R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The Explanation of Crime: Context, Mechanisms, and Development (pp. 195–242). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Loeber, R. N., Slot, W., and Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2006). A three-dimensional, cumulative developmental model of srious delinquency. In P.-O. H. Wikström and R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The Explanation of Crime: Context, Mechanisms, and Development (pp. 153–194). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Longshore, D., Chang, E., Hsieh, S.-c., and Messina, N. (2004). Self-control and social bonds: a combined control perspective on deviance. Crime and Delinquency, 50, 542–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Longshore, D., Chang, E., and Messina, N. (2005). Self-control and social bonds: a combined control perspective on juvenile offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 21, 419–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lynam, D. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Wikstrom, P.-O., Loeber, R., and Novak, S. (2000). The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context on offending: the effects of impulsivity are stronger in poor neighborhoods. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 563–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McCall, N. (1994). Makes Me Wanna Holler: A Young Black Man in America. New York, NY: Random House.Google Scholar
  63. Messner, S. F. and Rosenfeld, R. (2001) [1994]. Crime and the American Dream, 3rd Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  64. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moffitt, T. E. and Caspi, A. (2006). Evidence from behavioral genetics for environmental contributions to antisocial conduct. In P.-O. H. Wikström and R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The Explanation of Crime: Context, Mechanisms, and Development (pp. 108–152). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Muraven, M., Tice, D. M., and Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Self-control as a limited resource: regulatory depletion patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 774–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nagin, D. S. and Paternoster, R. (1993). Enduring individual differences and rational choice theories of crime. Law and Society Review, 27, 467–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nakhaie, M. R., Silverman, R. A., and LaGrange, T. C. (2000). Self-control and social control: an examination of gender, ethnicity, class and delinquency. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 25, 35–39.Google Scholar
  69. Perone, D., Sullivan, C. J., Pratt, T. C., and Margaryan, S. (2004). Parental efficacy, self-control, and delinquency: a test of a general theory of crime on a nationally representative sample of youth. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 48, 298–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Piquero, A. R. and Bouffard, J. A. (2007). Something old, something new: a preliminary investigation of Hirschi’s redefined self-control. Justice Quarterly, 24, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Piquero, A. R. and Tibbetts, S. (1996). Specifying the direct and indirect effects of low self-control and situational factors on offenders’decision making: toward a more complete model of rational offending. Justice Quarterly, 13, 491–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Polakowski, M. (1994). Linking self- and social control with deviance: illuminating the structure underlying a general theory of crime and its relation to deviant activity. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10, 41–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pratt, T. and Cullen, F. T. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime: a meta-analysis. Criminology, 38, 931–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pratt, T. C., Turner, M. G., and Piquero, A. R. (2004). Parental socialization and community context: a longitudinal analysis of the structural sources of low self-control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41, 219–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Raffaelli, M., Crockett, L. J., and Shen, Y.-L. (2005). Developmental stability and change in self-regulation from childhood to adolescence. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 166, 54–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reed, G. E. and Yeager, P. C. (1996). Organizational offending and neoclassical criminology: challenging the reach of a general theory of crime. Criminology, 34, 357–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ribeaud, D. and Eisner, M. (2006). The “drug-crime link” from a self-control perspective. European Journal of Criminology, 3, 33–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sampson, R. J. (2006). How does community context matter? Social mechanisms and the explanation of crime rates. In P.-O. H. Wikström and R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The Explanation of Crime: Context, Mechanisms, and Development (pp. 31–60). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Sampson, R. J. and Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: testing social-disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 774–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S., and Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., Earls, F. (1999). Beyond social capital: spatial dynamics of collective efficacy for children. American Sociological Review, 64, 633–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schoepfer, A. and Piquero, A. R. (2006). Self-control, moral beliefs, and criminal activity. Deviant Behavior, 27, 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schmeichel, B. J. and Baumeister, R. F. (2004). Self-regulatory strength. In R. F. Baumeister and K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Theory, Research, and Applications (pp. 84–98). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  84. Schreck, C. J., Stewart, E. A., and Fisher, B. S. (2006). Self-control, victimization, and their influence on risky lifestyles: a longitudinal analysis using panel data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22, 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shaw, C. and McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas, Revised Edition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  86. Short, J. F. Jr. (1998). The level of explanation problem revisited: The American Society of Criminology 1997 Presidential Address. Criminology, 36, 3–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sorenson, A. B. (1998). Theoretical mechanisms and the empirical study of social processes. In P. Hedström and R. Swedberg (Eds.), Social Mechanisms: An Analytic Approach to Social Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. S., and Smith, C. A. (2003). Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Tittle, C. R. (1985). The assumption that general theories are not possible. In R. F. Meier (Ed.), Theoretical Methods in Criminology (pp. 93–121). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  90. Tittle, C. R. (1989). Prospects for synthetic theory: a consideration of macro-leel criminological activity. In S. F. Messner, M. D. Krohn, and A. E. Liska (Eds.), Theoretical Integration in the Study of Deviance and Crime: Problems and Prospects (pp. 161–178). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  91. Tittle, C. R. (1995). Control Balance: Toward a General Theory of Deviance. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  92. Tittle, C. R. (2004). Refining control balance theory. Theoretical Criminology, 8, 395–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tittle, C. R. and Botchkovar, E. V. (2005a). The generality and hegemony of self-control theory: a comparison of Russian and US adults. Social Science Research, 34, 703–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tittle, C. R. and Botchkovar, E. V. (2005b). Self-control, criminal motivation and deterrence: an investigation using Russian respondents. Criminology, 43, 307–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tittle, C. R. and McCall, P. L. (2006). Collective discipline and homicide in United States cities: a static and dynamic exploration. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Society of Criminology. November, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  96. Tittle, C. R., Ward, D. A., and Grasmick, H. G. (2003). Self-control and crime/deviance: cognitive vs behavioral measures. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19, 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tittle, C. R., Ward, D. A., and Grasmick, H. G. (2004). Capacity for self-control and individuals’ interest in exercising self-control. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 20, 143–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tittle, C. R., Antonaccio, O., Botchkovar, E., and Kranidioti, M. (2010). Expected utility, self-control, morality, and criminal probability. Social Science Research (in press).Google Scholar
  99. Turner, M. G. and Piquero, A. R. (2002). The stability of self-control. Journal of Criminal Justice, 30, 457–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vazsonyi, A. T. and Crosswhite, J. M. (2004). A test of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime in African American adolescents. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41, 407–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vazsonyi, A. T., Pickering, L. E., Junger, M., and Hessing, D. (2001). An empirical test of a general theory of crime: a four-nation comparative study of self-control and the prediction of deviance. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 91–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vazsonyi, A. T., Clifford Wittekind, J. C., Belliston, L. M., and Van Loh, T. D. (2004). Extending the general theory of crime to “the East”: low self-control in Japanese late adolescents. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 20, 189–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Welch, M. R., Tittle, C. R., Yonkeski, J., Meidinger, N., and Grasmick, H. G. (2008). Social integration, self-control, and conformity. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24, 73–92.Google Scholar
  104. Wikström, P.-O. H. (2006). Linking individual, setting, and acts of crime: situational mechanisms and the explanation of crime. In P.-O. H. Wikström and R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The Explanation of Crime: Contexts, Mechanisms and Development (pp. 61–107). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Wikström, P.-O. H. and Treiber, K. (2007). The role of self-control in crime causation. European Journal of Criminology, 4, 237–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wilcox, P., Land, K. C., and Hunt, S. A. (2003). Criminal Circumstance: A Dynamic Multicontextual Criminal Opportunity Theory. New York, NY: Aldine deGruyter.Google Scholar
  107. Wilson, J. Q. and Herrnstein, R. J. (1985). Crime and Human Nature. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  108. Wolfgang, M., Figlio, R., and Sellin, T. (1972). Delinquency in a Birth Cohort. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  109. Wright, B. R. E., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., and Paternoster, R. (2004). Does the perceived risk of punishment deter criminally prone individuals? Rational choice, self-control, and crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41, 180–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wright, J. P. and Beaver, K. M. (2005). Do parents matter in creating self-control in their children? A genetically informed test of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s theory of low self-control. Criminology, 41, 1169–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations