Advertisement

School Violence and Its Control in Germany and the United States Since the 1950s

  • Dirk Schumann
Chapter

Abstract

The school shootings of recent years are not the first incidents of violence in schools to have shocked the public and provoked intense debate about causes and control. Drawing upon the concept of “moral panics” and comparing the debates and practices of the mid-1950s, the mid-1970s, and the early 1990s in West Germany and the United States, this essay argues that recurring concerns about school violence have been linked to broader anxieties about societal developments. In the 1950s, juvenile delinquency spilling over into the schools was the principal issue. In the 1970s, US experts described school violence as a problem of the schools themselves; security and discipline/climate emerged as different but equally valid ways of dealing with the issue. The West German debate of the 1970s defined school violence in more explicitly political terms and reached less specific conclusions about measures to control it. In the 1990s, approaches converged in both countries, defining school violence as a problem originating in school and society and requiring a sophisticated response in which therapeutic measures take priority over disciplinary ones.

Keywords

School Climate Corporal Punishment School Administrator Youth Violence Juvenile Delinquency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adam, R. (1970). Die Kriminalität in den Schulen der USA. Die Deutsche Schule, 62, 309 f.Google Scholar
  2. Adam, R. (1973). Die Kriminalität in den Schulen der USA. Die Deutsche Schule, 65, 709 f.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, K. and Rubel R. J. (Eds.) (1980). Violence and Crime in the Schools. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  4. Bayh, B. (1977). Seeking solutions to school violence and vandalism. Phi Delta Kappan, 59(5), 299–302.Google Scholar
  5. Bonilla, D. M. (Ed.) (2000). School Violence. New York, NY: H.W. Wilson.Google Scholar
  6. Briesen, D. and Weinhauer, K. (2007). Einleitung. In Briesen and Weinhauer (Eds.), Jugend, Delinquenz und gesellschaftlicher Wandel. Bundesrepublik Deutschland und USA nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg (pp. 13–25). Essen: Klartext.Google Scholar
  7. Brusten, M. and Hurrelmann, K. ³(1973). Abweichendes Verhalten in der Schule: Eine Untersuchung zu Prozessen der Stigmatisierung. Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  8. Busemann, A. (1956). Verwilderung und Verrohung. Unsere Jugend, 8, 159–168.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, S. (1999). Challenging Orthodoxies: Toward a New Cultural History of Education. New York, NY: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, S. ³(2002). Folk Devils and Moral Panics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Coleman, J. W. (1980). Deviant subcultures and the schools. In K. Baker and R. J. Rubel (Eds.), Violence (pp. 139–149). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  12. Crews, G. A. and Reid Counts, M. (1997). The Evolution of School Disturbance in America: Colonial Times to Modern Day. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  13. Diwo, P. (1956). Die Diktatur der “Halbstarken”. Die Pädagogische Provinz, 10, 314–318.Google Scholar
  14. Dreeben, R. (1968). On What Is Learned In School. Reading, MA: Adison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  15. Ehrentreich, A. (1956). Zum Problem der “Halbstarken”. Die Pädagogische Provinz, 10, 609.Google Scholar
  16. Elliott, D. S., Hamburg, B. A., and Williams, K. R. (Eds.) (1997). Violence in American Schools: A New Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Flissikowski, R., Kluge, K.-J., and Schauerhammer, K. (1980). Vom Prügelstock zur Erziehungsklasse für “schwierige“ Kinder: Zur Sozialgeschichte abweichenden Verhaltens in der Schule. München: Minerva-Publikationen.Google Scholar
  18. Fuchs, M. et al. (2005). Gewalt an Schulen, 1994–1998–2004. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  19. Gass-Bolm, T. (2002). Das Ende der Schulzucht. In U. Herbert (Ed.), Wandlungsprozesse in Westdeutschland. Belastung, Integration, Liberalisierung 1945–1980 (pp. 436–466). Göttingen: Wallstein.Google Scholar
  20. Gilbert, J. (1986). A Cycle of Outrage: America’s Reaction to the Juvenile Delinquent in the 1950s. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Goldstein, A. P. and Conoley, J. C. (Eds.) (1997). School Violence Intervention: A Practical Handbook. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  22. Gottfredson, G. D. and Gottfredson, D. C. (1985). Victimization in Schools. New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  23. Grauer, G. and Zinnecker, J. (1978). Schülergewalt: Über unterschlagene und dramatisierte Seiten des Schülerlebens. In G.-B. Reinert and J. Zinnecker (Eds.), Schüler im Schulbetrieb: Berichte und Bilder vom Lernalltag, von Lernpausen und vom Lernen in den Pausen (pp. 282–348). Reinbek: Rowohlt.Google Scholar
  24. Grauer, G., Umbsen, P., and Wolff, R. (1976). Gewalt in der Schule – Schule als Gewalt – oder kommen die Vandalen wie weiland aus dem Osten? Betrifft: Erziehung, 9(7), 32–47.Google Scholar
  25. Grotum, T. (1994). Die Halbstarken: Zur Geschichte einer Jugendkultur der 50er Jahre. Frankfurt: Campus.Google Scholar
  26. Haas, M. (1988). Violent schools – unsafe schools: the case of Hawaii. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32, 727–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hampel, R. L. (1986). The Last Little Citadel: American High Schools Since 1940. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  28. Held, P. (1976). ‘Er trägt eine circa 50 cm lange Machete bei sich.’ Betrifft: Erziehung, 9(7), 50 f.Google Scholar
  29. Herbert, U. (2002). Liberalisierung als Lernprozeß: Die Bundesrepublik in der deutschen Geschichte – eine Skizze. In Ed. id., Wandlungsprozesse in Westdeutschland: Belastung, Integration, Liberalisierung 1945–1980 (pp. 7–49). Göttingen: Wallstein.Google Scholar
  30. Hine, T. (1999). The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager. New York, NY: Bard/Avon Books.Google Scholar
  31. Hoffmann, A. M. (Ed.) (1996). Schools, Violence, and Society. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  32. Hoffmann, M. (1976). Kriminalität und Vandalismus in den Schulen der USA. Die Deutsche Schule, 68, 318–330.Google Scholar
  33. Holtappels, H. G. and Meier, U. (1997). Gewalt an Schulen: Erscheinungsformen von Schulgewalt und Einflüsse des Schulklimas. Die Deutsche Schule, 89(1), 50–62.Google Scholar
  34. Holtappels, H. G., Heitmeyer, W., Melzer, W., and Tillmann, K.-J. (Eds.) ³(2004) (1997). Forschungen über Gewalt an Schulen: Erscheinungsformen, Konzepte und Prävention. Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  35. Jones, K. W. (1999). Taming the Troublesome Child: American Families, Child Guidance, and the Limits of Psychiatric Authority. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kalb, P. E. (1976). Gewalt in BRD-Schulen. Betrifft: Erziehung, 9(7), 51 f.Google Scholar
  37. Kett, J. F. (1977). Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America 1790 to the Present. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  38. Kurme, S. (2006). Halbstarke. Jugendprotest in den 1950er Jahren in Deutschland und den USA. Frankfurt: Campus.Google Scholar
  39. Luhmann, N. (1978). Erziehender Unterricht als Interaktionssystem. In J. Diederich (Ed.), Erziehender Unterricht: Fiktion und Faktum (pp. 77–94). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  40. Midlarsky, E. and Klein, H. M. (2005). A history of violence in the schools. In F. Denmark et al. (Eds.), Violence in Schools. Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Perspectives (pp. 37–58). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Mintz, S. (2004). Huck's Raft. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.Google Scholar
  42. Moore, M. H. et al. (2003): Deadly Lessons. Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  43. Muchow, H. H. (1956). Zur Psychologie und Pädagogik der Halbstarken. Unsere Jugend, 8, 388–394, 442–449, 486–491.Google Scholar
  44. National Institute of Education (1978). Violent Schools, Safe Schools. The Safe School Study Report to the Congress, 3 Vols. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  45. Newman, J. and Newman, G. (1980). Crime and punishment in the schooling process: a historical analysis. In K. Baker and R. J. Rubel (Eds.), Violence (pp. 1–28). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  46. Olsen, Sister M. V., O.S.M. (1964). A study of corporal punishment and court decisions in Illinois, M.A. Thesis, Loyola University, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  47. Phillips, J. C. (1980). The creation of deviant behavior in American high schools. In K. Baker and R. J. Rubel (Eds.), Violence (pp. 115–127). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  48. Poiger, U. (2000). Jazz, Rock 'n' Roll, and Rebels: Cold War Politics and American Culture in a Divided Germany. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  49. Preuschoff, G. and Preuschoff, A. (1993). Gewalt an Schulen: Und was dagegen zu tun ist. Cologne: Papyrossa.Google Scholar
  50. Pröhl, T. (2006). Gewalt an Schulen im Vergleich Deutschland – USA. Tübingen: Institut für Kriminologie.Google Scholar
  51. Quay, H. C. (1980). School crime and conduct disorder. In K. Baker and R. J. Rubel (Eds.), Violence (pp. 129–138). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  52. Ravitch, D. (1983). The Troubled Crusade: American Education 1945–1980. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  53. Rubel, R. J. (1977). The Unruly School: Disorders, Disruptions, and Crimes. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  54. Rubel, R. J. (1980). Extent, perspectives, and consequences of violence and vandalism in public schools. In K. Baker and R. J. Rubel (Eds.), Violence (pp. 17–28). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  55. Schneider, E. C. (1999). Vampires, Dragons, and Egyptian Kings: Youth Gangs in Postwar New York. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Schubarth, W. (1993). Schule und Gewalt: ein wieder aktuelles Thema. In W. Schubarth and W. Melzer (Eds.), Schule, Gewalt und Rechtsextremismus (pp. 16–44). Opladen: Leske und Budrich.Google Scholar
  57. Schumann, D. (2007). Legislation and liberalisation: the debate about corporal punishment in schools in postwar West Germany, 1945–1975. German History, 25, 192–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schumann, D. (2010). Asserting their ‘Natural Right’: parents and schooling in post-1945 Germany. In Ed. id., Raising Citizens in the “Century of the Child“: Child Rearing, Education, and Welfare in the United States and German Central Europe in the Twentieth Century (pp. 206–225). New York, NY: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  59. Schumann, D. and Sealander, J. (2008). Disziplin: Schule und Militär. In C. Mauch and K. Patel (Eds.), Wettlauf um die Moderne: Die USA und Deutschland 1890 bis heute (pp. 225–257). Munich: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  60. Schwind, H.-D., et al. (Eds.) (1995). Gewalt in der Schule – am Beispiel von Bochum. Mainz: Weisser Ring.Google Scholar
  61. Southgate, E. (2003). Remembering School: Mapping Continuities in Power, Subjectivity, and Emotion in Stories of School Life. New York, NY: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  62. Tillmann, K.-J. (1997). Gewalt an Schulen: Öffentliche Diskussion und erziehungswissenschaftliche Forschung. Die Deutsche Schule, 89(1), 36–49.Google Scholar
  63. Tinto, V. (1980). The social patterning of deviant behaviors in school. In K. Baker and R. J. Rubel (Eds.), Violence (pp. 155–166). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  64. Tyack, D. (1974). The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Tyack, D. B. and Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering Toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Watson, R. J. and Watson, R. S. (2002). The School as a Safe Haven. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.Google Scholar
  67. Wint, J. (1975). Contrasting solutions for school violence. Phi Delta Kappan, 57(3), 175–178.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medieval and Modern HistoryGeorg-August UniversityGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations