Optimizing the Biofuels Infrastructure: Transportation Networks and Biorefinery Locations in Illinois
Growing biofuel mandates pose considerable challenges to the infrastructure needed across all stages of the supply chain − from crop production, feedstock harvesting, storage, transportation, and processing to biofuel distribution and use. This chapter focuses on the biofuel transportation and distribution network infrastructure, using Illinois as a case study. Building on an optimal land use allocation model for feedstock production, a mathematical programming model is used to determine optimal locations and capacities of biorefineries, delivery of bioenergy crops to biorefineries, and processing and distribution of ethanol and co-products (DDGS). The model aims to minimize total system costs in a multiyear planning horizon for the period of 2007–2022. Certain locations may be more suitable for corn and corn stover-based ethanol plants, others more for producing ethanol using perennial grasses (miscanthus)
KeywordsCorn Stover Planning Horizon Cellulosic Ethanol Bioenergy Crop Cellulosic Biomass
- API (2008) “Shipping Ethanol Through Pipelines.” American Petroleum Institute. Available at http://www.api.org/aboutoilgas/sectors/pipeline/upload/pipelineethanolshipment-2.doc. Accessed on May 15, 2009.
- Babcock BA, Hayes DJ and Lawrence JD (eds) (2008) “Using Distillers Grains in the U.S. and International Livestock and Poultry Industries,” Midwest Agribusiness Trade Research and Information Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
- Brat I and Machalaba D (2007) “Can Ethanol Get a Ticket to Ride?,” The Wall Street Journal, Feb. 1, p. B1.Google Scholar
- Brown R, Orwig E, Nemeth J and Subietta Rocha C (2007) “Economic potential for ethanol expansion in Illinois”, Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs at Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL.Google Scholar
- CRS (2007) “Ethanol and Other Biofuels-Potential for U.S.-Brazil Energy Cooperation.” Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Dantzig GB and Thapa MN (2003) Linear Programming: Theory and Extensions. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Daskin MS (1995) Network and Discrete Location: Models, Algorithms, and Applications. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
- Dooley FJ, Cox M and Cox L (2008) “Distillers Grain Handbook: A Guide for Indiana Producers to Using DDGS for Animal Feed”, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, http://incorn.org/images/stories/IndianaDDGSHandbook.pdf. Accessed on May 15, 2009.
- Drezner Z (1995) Facility Location. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Eathington L and Swenson DA (2007) “Dude, Where's My Corn? Constraints on the Location of Ethanol Production in the Corn Belt.” Department of Economics, Iowa State University.Google Scholar
- Ellinger P (2008) Ethanol Plant Simulator. Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
- GAO (2007) “Biofuels: DOE Lacks a Strategic Approach to Coordinate Increasing Production with Infrastructure Development and Vehicle Needs”, U.S. Government Accountability Office, GAO-07-713, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Khanna M, Önal H, Chen X and Huang H (2009) “Meeting Biofuels Targets: Implications for Land Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Use in Illinois.” See Chapter 17 in this book.
- Kumar A, Sokhansanj S and Flynn PC (2006) “Development of a Multicriteria Assessment Model for Ranking Biomass Feedstock Collection and Transportation Systems.” Proceedings of 27th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, 71–87.Google Scholar
- Mahmudi H, Flynn PC and Checkel MD (2005) “Life Cycle Analysis of Biomass Transportation: Trains vs. Trucks.” SAE Technical Papers, http://www.sae.org/technical/papers/2005-01-1551. Accessed on May 15, 2009.
- Mapemba LD (2005) “Cost to Deliver Lignocellulosic Biomass to a Biorefinery.” Ph.D Dissertation, Oklahoma State University.Google Scholar
- NREL (2007) “A National Laboratory Market and Technology Assessment of the 30x30 Scenario”, National Renewable Energy Lab, Technical Report/TP-510-40942, January.Google Scholar
- Peluso T, Baker L and Thomassin PJ (1998) “The Siting of Ethanol Plants in Quebec.” Can J Region Sci 21(1): 73–86.Google Scholar
- RFA (2008) “Industry Statistics”, Renewable Fuel Association, accessed 28 November 2008, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/locations. Accessed on May 15, 2009.
- Scheffran J and Bendor T (2009) “Bioenergy and Land Use – A Spatial-Agent Dynamic Model of Energy Crop Production in Illinois.” Int J Environ Pollution: in press.Google Scholar
- Singh V, Johnston D, Naidu K, Rausch KD, Belyea RL and Tumbleson ME (2004) Effect of modified dry grind corn processes on fermentation characteristics and ddgs composition. Proceedings of the Corn Utilization & Technology Conference, Indianapolis, IN. June 7–9.Google Scholar
- U.S.EPA (2007) “Renewable Fuel Standard Implementation.” Available at: http://www.epa.gov/OTAQ/renewablefuels/index.htm. Accessed on May 15, 2009.
- Tembo G, Epplin FM and Huhnke RL (2003) “Integrative investment appraisal of a lignocellulosic biomass-to-ethanol industry.” J Agri Res Econ 28(3): 611–633.Google Scholar
- Tursun D, Kang S, Onal H, Ouyang Y and Scheffran J (2009) “Optimum Biorefinery Locations and Transportation Network for the Future Biofuels Industry in Illinois.”: In: M. Khanna (ed.), Transition to a Bioeconomy: Environmental and Rural Development Impacts, Proceedings of Farm Foundation/USDA Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, October 15–16, 2008, Farm Foundation, Oak Brook.Google Scholar
- Wallace R, Ibsen K, McAloon A and Yee W (2005) “Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks.” NREL/TP-510-37092 Revised January Edition: USDA/USDOE/NREL.Google Scholar
- Worldwatch (2006) “Biofuels for Transportation, Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable Agriculture and Energy in the 21st Century”, Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.Google Scholar
- Wooley R, Ruth M, Sheehan J, Ibsen K, Majdeski H and Galvez A (1999) “Lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol – Process design and economics utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis – Current and futuristic scenarios”. Report No. TP-580-26157, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.Google Scholar