Geophysical and Experimental Petrological Studies of the Earth’s Interior

  • Alok K. Gupta
  • Mrigank Mauli Dwivedi
  • William S. Fyfe


Seismo-tomographic studies, reveal the presence of two major discontinuities inside the earth: Mohorovicic discontinuity (occurring 35–45 km below the continents and 10–15 km below the ocean) and the other is Guttenberg-Reichert discontinuity, present 2860 km below the surface. These two discontinui ties divide the earth into, a) crust, b) mantle and c) core. There is also a low velocity discontinuity (Conrad, 10–15 km below the continental crust; not globally observed). Drilling of up to 13 km in Kola Peninsula, Russia across Conrad, shows the presence of sub-parallel faults causing intense shearing and re-equilibration to lower grade metamorphic rocks. Phase equilibria studies on olivine, Mg-Fe pyroxenes, diopsides, garnet, (Mg, Fe)O under P-T conditions similar to upper and lower mantle conditions suggest that the discontinuity at 313 km can be correlated with orthopyroxene ⇔ high pressure clinopyroxene (Mg, Fe)SiO3 phase transformation, but those at 410, 520 at 660 km have been attributed to structural changes of olivine ⇔ wadsleyite, wadsleyite ⇔ ringwoodite and akimotite ⇔ perovskite, respectively. The discontinu ity at 720 and 1200 km are considered to be due to conversion of MgSiO3 (majorite) to MgSiO3 (perovskite) and stishovite (rutile structure) to a SiO2 polymorph having PbO2 or CaF2-like structure. The discontinuity at 1700 km may be due to conversion of cubic Ca-perovskite to tetragonal Ca-perovskite structure, and that at 2740 km at the beginning of D″ layer may be due to transformation of perovskite to post-perovskite structure. The ultra low velocity zone (ULVZ) below 2870 km is due to the presence of liquid iron core. Studies at megabar and high temperatures reveal that the solid iron core, has a hexagonal close-packed structure.


Lower Mantle Moho Discontinuity Phys Earth Planet Inter Mantle Transition Zone Majorite Garnet 
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Copyright information

© Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alok K. Gupta
    • 1
  • Mrigank Mauli Dwivedi
    • 1
  • William S. Fyfe
    • 2
  1. 1.National Centre of Experimental Mineralogy and PetrologyUniversity of AllahabadAllahabad, U.P.India
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

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