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Neuroanatomical Atlas of Key Presurgical and Cognitive Eloquent Cortex Regions

  • Feroze B. Mohamed
  • Michael Yannes
  • Muhammed Malik
  • Scott H. Faro
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we have displayed several important areas of normal functioning adult brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. These images may serve as a reference or template for users of fMRI for brain mapping. The fMR images shown here highlight areas of brain activation arising from simple motor, language, visual, auditory tasks, and cognitive paradigms. An illustration of the key clinical Brodmann areas and corresponding neuroanatomical correlates is presented. Basic functional descriptions of these areas are also included. A somatotopic fMRI mapping of the human motor cortex was created for the tongue, face, hand, wrist, trunk, and foot. A review of the basic functional role of these cortices and potential clinical deficits are also presented.

Keywords

Supplemental Motor Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Primary Motor Cortex Inferior Parietal Lobule Brodmann Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Introduction

In this chapter, we have displayed several important areas of normal functioning adult brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. These images may serve as a reference or template for users of fMRI for brain mapping. The fMR images shown here highlight areas of brain activation arising from simple motor, language, visual, auditory tasks, and cognitive paradigms. An illustration of the key clinical Brodmann areas and corresponding neuroanatomical correlates is presented. Basic functional descriptions of these areas are also included. A somatotopic fMRI mapping of the human motor cortex was created for the tongue, face, hand, wrist, trunk, and foot. A review of the basic functional role of these cortices and potential clinical deficits are also presented.

The fMRI experiments in these conditions were carried out by simple box-car type block design experiments on a 3-Tesla scanner. These included a rest condition where no activity was performed, followed by an activation period where the subject was asked to perform a specific task. The representation of visual function as well as language and auditory areas were also obtained using a block design. In these experiments, a crosshair display was used as a rest condition.

The images shown here are represented in radiological coordinates and are presented in three different orientations: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). The color map overlying the images are statistical maps and the graded change in color from yellow to white represent varying statistical value (t-score) from low to high statistical significance. A composite display showing the motor homunculus with corresponding fMRI activation maps is shown at the end of the chapter. The postprocessing of the fMRI data was performed with SPM8 software (Statistical Parametric Mapping, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, University College of London) [1] running under the Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) environment. A Pentium-based PC was used to generate all the images shown in this section (Fig. 47.1).
Fig. 47.1

Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas of the brain

Key Clinical Brodmann Areas: Neuroanatomical and Cognitive Correlates

  • 1, 2, 3  =  postcentral gyrus, sensory cortex

  • 4  =  precentral gyrus, motor cortex

  • 6  =  supplemental motor area (SMA). Involved in planning of complex coordinated movements

  • 7  =  parietal, posterior, to postcentral sensory cortex. Involved in visual motor coordination

  • 8  =  superior frontal gyrus, anterior to premotor cortex. Involved in frontal eye field (control of eye movements), and planning of complex movements

  • 9/10/46  =  dorsolataral prefrontal cortex. Involved in executive functions

  • 10/11/47  =  orbitofrontal cortex. Involved in decision-making processes

  • 17  =  posterior medial occipital, primary visual cortex

  • 22/42  =  Wernicke’s language region (posterior portion of 22). Also includes small portions of 39 and 40

  • 23/29/30/31  =  posterior cingulate. Involved in memory, spatial awareness, proprioception

  • 32/33  =  anterior cingulate. Involved in coordinating cognitive functions of the frontal lobe with motor cortex, involved in reward anticipation, motivation as well as decision making

  • 39  =  inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus. Involved in word comprehension and arithmetic functions

  • 40  =  inferior parietal lobule, supramarginal gyrus. Involved in word recognition

  • 41/42  =  superior mid lateral temporal, primary auditory cortex

  • 44/45  =  inferior lateral frontal lobe, Broca’s language region

Inferior Frontal Gyrus

Functional role: The inferior frontal gyrus is subdivided into three main areas: the pars opercularis, the pars triangularis, and the pars orbitalis (Brodmann’s areas 44, 45, 47). The left inferior frontal gyrus, specifically the pars opercularis and pars triangularis, are considered to be part of Broca’s area. Broca’s area, in contrast to Wernicke’s area, is a major language production center of the brain. Language programs and comprehension is produced in Wernicke’s area, and sent anteriorly along the arcuate fasciculus before entering the production centers of Broca’s area. Patients with focal lesions to the left inferior frontal gyrus present with symptoms of nonfluent aphasia. In contrast to Wernicke’s aphasia, these patients can understand speech, but have difficulty with speech production. Their speech is slowed, yet contains relatively concrete and appropriate nouns, verbs, and adjectives [2] (Fig. 47.2).
Fig. 47.2

Inferior frontal gyrus: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, with 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the inferior frontal gyrus activity (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Superior Temporal Gyrus

Functional role: In 90% of right-handed people, the left superior temporal gyrus is colloquially called “Wernicke’s area.” Wernicke’s area is considered to be a part of Brodmann areas 22, 39, and 40. Although modern neuroimaging has started to ammend old viewpoints, Wernicke’s area is still commonly known as the “language comprehension” center. More specifically, Wernicke’s area is believed to be the center that associates sounds and words with concepts and concrete ideas. In Wernicke’s area lesions, speech has a relatively normal syntax and rhythm, but its content is unintelligible. The speech has relatively few intelligible nouns, verbs, and adjectives. This presents as a jargon aphasia, in which many phonemic and semantic paraphasias are present [2] (Fig. 47.3).
Fig. 47.3

Superior temporal gyrus: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, with 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the superior temporal gyrus (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Middle Frontal Gyrus/Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

Functional role: The middle frontal gyrus roughly correlates to Brodmann’s area 46 and parts of Brodmann’s area 9 and 10, which is a small part of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) The DLPFC is one of the last of all brain regions to develop and myelinate (along with the orbitofrontal cortex), and serves a critical role in executive functioning. These functions include integration of sensory and motor information, and the regulation of intellectual function and action, including concentration, planning, judgment, and problem solving. Perhaps most importantly, the DLPFC has a vital role in regulating working memory, and thus, attention. The DLPFC is closely connected with other areas of the prefrontal cortex, so it is difficult to attribute simply one disease manifestation. However, patients with bilateral lesions to the DLPFC can present with symptoms ranging from abulia to “dysexecutive syndrome.” Patient with abulia often have the drive and will to carry out objectives, but lack the attention and drive to follow those through with those objectives [3] (Fig. 47.4).
Fig. 47.4

Middle frontal gyrus/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the middle frontal gyrus activity (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Superior Frontal Gyrus

Functional role: The superior frontal gyrus is diffusely considered to be part of Brodmann’s area 8, and part of 4, 6, and 9. These regions have diffuse functional capabilities. Brodmann area 8 is responsible for initiation of eye movements, and is part of the premotor cortex (Brodmann area 6). The premotor cortex is primarily responsible for the initiation and planning of motor control. This activity is different from stimulation of the primary motor cortex, because it usually elicits more complex movement of multiple joints, resembling natural coordinated movement. Focal lesions to the superior frontal gyrus would cause many far-reaching deficits, including both motor and executive functioning [2] (Fig. 47.5).
Fig. 47.5

Superior frontal gyrus: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the superior frontal gyrus activity (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Precentral Gyrus

Functional role: The precentral gyrus contains the primary motor cortex. The primary motor cortex corresponds to Brodmann’s area 4. Its primary function is the execution, as well as some planning, of movement. The primary motor cortex receives parallel input from the supplementary motor areas (SMAs), premotor areas, the basal ganglia, as well as the cerebellum to execute fluid, appropriate motor activity. The axons of the primary motor cortex descend down the spinal cord as a major motor tract in the human body (Fig. 47.6a–f).
Fig. 47.6

Precentral gyrus: (a) Tongue; (b) face; (c) right hand motor task; (d) right wrist; (e) trunk; (f) foot; axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to move various areas of body. Designed in “boxcar” format, with 10 s of movement and 10 s of inactivity (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

The primary motor cortex, like the somatosensory cortex posterior to it (Fig. 47.7), is organized somatotopically. This organization is colloquially called a homunculus. The head representation is located more lateral within the gyrus, while the knees and feet hook over the superior aspect of the hemisphere and descend medially. Both motor and sensory homunculi have a disproportionate amount of area corresponding to the face and hands, reflecting the extent of both tactile sensation and manual dexterity given to those areas.
Fig. 47.7

Somatotopic mapping in the human somatosensory motor cortex along with corresponding functional MRI activation patterns

Lesions to one hemisphere’s premotor cortex cause contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia to the corresponding area of the body represented on the somatotopic representation [2].

Supplementary Motor Area

Functional role: The SMA corresponds to Brodmann’s area 6. The SMA is partially responsible for the planning of complex motor activities and bimanual control of those motor activities. While the premotor cortex generates complex motor plans in response to externally generated cues, the SMA generates complex motor plans in response to internally generated cues. An example of this would be performing a motor response by memory, or having a volitional motor response. When motor plans are simply thought about, there is activity in the SMA (Fig. 47.8).
Fig. 47.8

Supplementary motor area: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to move the foot. Designed in “boxcar” format, with 10 s of movement and 10 s of inactivity. The action of foot movement activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the supplementary motor area (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Patients with focal lesions to the SMA most commonly present with motor apraxia, or the inability to perform volitional motor actions, even in the absence of physical paralysis. When asked to do a motor task volitionally, these patients cannot do so (e.g., extending their arm); however, these patients can move spontaneously in response to a stimulus (e.g., using their arm to scratch an itch) [4].

Orbitofrontal Cortex

Functional role: The orbitofrontal cortex corresponds to Brodmann areas 10, 11, and 47. The orbitofrontal cortex works in concert with the anterior cingulate cortex to generate a representation of reward, and importantly, to adjust that concept of reward over time. While the anterior cingulate gyrus generates a more moment-to-moment cost–benefit analysis of situations, the orbitofrontal cortex seems to have more of a role in basing decisions on expected outcomes, and modulating those decisions to increase wanted effects in the future. The orbitofrontal cortex provides cognitive flexibility in the face of changing contexts [5] (Fig. 47.9).
Fig. 47.9

Orbitofrontal cortex: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the orbitofrontal cortex (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

The orbitofrontal cortex is one of the later parts of the brain to reach maturity. This may help to biologically explain the impulsive behavior and lack of foresight of teenage youth. Patients with lesions to the oribitofrontal cortex commonly present with “dysexecutive syndrome.” In this syndrome, patients often present with poor judgment and foresight, the inability to learn from experiences, emotional lability, and poor interpersonal skills. Interestingly, patients often perform poorly on gambling tasks, situations that require quick cognitive flexibility and assessment of situations.

Posterior Cingulate Cortex

Functional role: The posterior cingulate cortex corresponds to Brodmann’s area 23, 29, 30, and 31. Brodmann’s areas 29 and 30 include the retrosplenial cortex, a functionally different area from areas 23 and 31. The retrosplenial cortex has diffuse connections with the anterior thalamus and the hippocampus, leading to its importance in the recall of episodic memory and spatial navigation. The rest of the posterior cingulate cortex is believed to function in proprioception and visuospatial function. Focal lesions to the retrosplenium cortex contribute to anterograde amnesia (Fig. 47.10).
Fig. 47.10

Posterior cingulate cortex: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the posterior cingulate (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Anterior Cingulate

Functional role: The anterior cingulate cortex correlates to Brodmann’s area 32 and 33. The dorsal region of the anterior cingulate cortex helps to connect cognitive function of the frontal cortices with motor control of the parietal cortices. In this function, it processes and filters stimuli and directs input to different cortical regions. The ventral region of the anterior cingulate cortex has diffuse connections with the amygdala, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and insula. It is part of the circuit involved in reward anticipation and motivation, as well as decision making. The anterior cingulate is the region of the brain that is important in maintaining goals to tasks, as well as the rules to carry them out. In addition, it is important in generating a moment-to-moment cost–benefit analysis of situations. Finally, it is part of the circuit involved in error detection and modulation of emotional responses [6] (Fig. 47.11).
Fig. 47.11

Anterior cingulate: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the anterior cingulate (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Because of its role in error detection, various psychological tasks elicit anterior cingulate activation. Most notably, these include the Stroop test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.

Patients with lesions to the anterior cingulate region thus present with problems in error detection. In addition, the most notable symptom of a lesion to the anterior cingulate is akinetic mutism, or the loss of ability to speak and move. Patients with unilateral lesions to one hemisphere’s anterior cingulated cortex can present with symptoms of “Alien Hand Syndrome,” which is categorized by a lack of agency on one side of the body [7].

Cerebellum (Hand Movement)

Functional role: The cerebellum’s most understandable role is in motor control. Notedly, the cerebellum does not initiate movement, but rather, is responsible for timing, precision, and coordination of movement. These functions collectively contribute to the role of the cerebellum in fine motor control. Additionally, medial regions of the cerebellum serve as effectors of vestibular input and as controllers of gait. The cerebellum contains a greater number of neurons than any other subdivision in the brain. It is of metencephalic origin, and its defining histological characteristics are that of an extensively branching dendritic system of Purkinje cells. Deficits in cerebellar activity can elicit symptoms of ataxia [2] (Fig. 47.12).
Fig. 47.12

Cerebellum (hand movement): axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to move left hand at radiocarpal (wrist) joint. Designed in a “boxcar” format, 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of hand movement activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the depict cerebellar activity (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Inferior Parietal Lobule

Functional role: The inferior parietal lobule has two subdivisions: the supramarginal gyrus [8] (Brodmann area 40) and the angular gyrus [9] (Brodmann area 39). The supramarginal gyrus has the function of visual word recognition, in regards to both meaning and phonology. The angular gyrus has been found to be involved in understanding metaphors, perhaps underlying its functioning in giving words meaning. Additionally, the angular gyrus appears to have some function in arithmetic. Both of these areas are important in the orderly or sequential performance of tasks (Fig. 47.13).
Fig. 47.13

Inferior parietal lobule: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the inferior parietal lobule (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Inferior parietal lobule focal lesions can be one cause of asteroeognosis, or the inability to identify an object by touch. Additionally, lesions to this region in the non-dominant hemisphere can be one cause of “neglect syndrome,” in which the patient fails to recognize the opposite side of the body (usually left) and its surroundings. Lesions to the inferior parietal lobule have most consistently led to the constellation of symptoms known as Gerstmann syndrome, which includes the symptoms of finger agnosia, acalculia, right–left confusion, agraphia, and sometimes alexia [10].

Hippocampus: Medial Middle Temporal Gyrus

Functional role: The hippocampus’ most important function is the consolidation of memory and learning, specifically concerning episodic and semantic memories. Interestingly, patients with bilateral lesions to the hippocampus still have the ability to process procedural memories (such as how to ride a bicycle or play an instrument), as well as implicit memory, or recalling information without conscious recollection of knowing it. This suggests that although the hippocampus is critical in memory formation, there are other auxiliary circuits for memory formation (Fig. 47.14).
Fig. 47.14

Hippocampus: medial middle temporal gyrus: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, with 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the ­hippocampus (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

The mechanism through which the hippocampus “forms” memories is under intense study. However, the leading theory is that stimulating neuronal circuits simultaneously enhances signal transmission through those circuits. This type of activity is called long-term potentiation, or LTP. It is best observed in neurons that have NMDA glutamate receptors; since these receptors are densely found in the hippocampus, this corroborates its function in learning and memory. Having the ability to change synaptic strength with changes in input underlies the concept of synaptic plasticity.

Bilateral lesions to the hippocampal regions result in anterograde amnesia, or the inability to form new memories, and to a lesser extent, retrograde amnesia, or the inability to remember past memories. It is unclear whether hippocampal degeneration is responsible for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia in the elderly, although there is evidence suggesting that elderly people who show hippocampal atrophy perform poorly on memory tasks [4].

Transverse Temporal Gyrus

Functional role: The transverse temporal gyrus contains the primary auditory cortex. The primary auditory cortex corresponds to Brodmann’s area 41 and 42. Its primary function is in the perception of frequency, sound intensity, and duration (see  Chap. 14 for more detail). Additionally, one hemisphere’s primary auditory cortex functions in the localizing of contralaterally originating sounds. The primary auditory cortex is not the only area that is responsible for localizing sounds; the superior olivary nuclear complex and inferior colliculus also help in this task (Fig. 47.15a, b).
Fig. 47.15

Transverse temporal gyrus: (a) audio tone (500 Hz); (b) audio tone (1,000 Hz); axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient listened to audio tones of (a) 500 Hz, and (b) 1,000 Hz. Designed in “boxcar” format, with 10 s of audio and 10 s of silence (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

The primary auditory cortex, much like the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, is organized in a predictable manner. Lower frequencies project to more ventral regions of the gyrus, while higher frequencies project to more dorsal regions.

The auditory system has complex bilateral connections, beginning as low as the cochlear nuclei. Thus, lesions to one primary auditory cortex rarely cause difficulty with audition. However, for a short time before the other auditory cortex compensates, there may be a small auditory deficit from the contralateral side [2].

Fusiform Gyrus

Functional role: The fusiform gyrus corresponds to Brodmann’s area 37. Located within the inferior temporal gyrus, it is part of the ventral stream of visual processing. More specifically, the fusiform gyrus has been implicated in the processing of faces. In addition, it may be responsible for the differentiation of very closely related objects and familiar objects, as well as the processing of colors and words [11] (Fig. 47.16).
Fig. 47.16

Fusiform gyrus: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, with 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the fusiform gyrus (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

Patients with bilateral lesions to the fusiform gyrus, in addition to the expected deficits in ventral stream processing, would present with an inability to recognize faces, known as prosopagnosia. In this disease state, patients are able to correctly identify other objects, but cannot identify individual faces. Capgras delusion may be a related disorder to prosopagnosia. In this disorder, patients claim that familiar persons members and loved ones are not real, but rather, imposters. This delusion is believed to be a result of a disconnect of the fusiform gyrus with the limbic system, responsible for associating objects with emotional responses [12].

Visual Cortex

Functional role: The visual cortex is represented by Brodmann’s area 17, 18, and 19. It is composed of both the striate cortex (V1), as well as the extrastriate cortex (V2–V5). V1 receives information from the optic radiations projecting back from the lateral geniculate nucleus, and is a well-defined map of spatial information in the visual field. V2–V5 are areas of the visual cortex dedicated to different perception of visual modalities such as form and motion (see  Chap. 11 for more details) (Fig. 47.17).
Fig. 47.17

Visual cortex: axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient presented with paradigm of alternating checkerboard and crosshair. Designed in “boxcar” format, with 10 s of checkerboard and 10 s of crosshair (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

There are two pathways from which the visual pathway projects information, a dorsal and a ventral pathway. The dorsal pathway is commonly termed the “where” pathway, and conveys motion information to the heteromodal associative cortex in the posterior parietal lobe. The ventral pathway is commonly termed the “what” pathway, and conveys color and form information to the heteromodal associative cortex in the inferior temporal lobe.

The visual cortex and its associative areas represent a large portion of the cortex. Discreet lesions to different parts of the cortex can lead to a complete loss of vision, homonymous anopsias (loss of a field of vision), deficits in processing motion or object information, or a combination of those functions [2].

Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex

Functional role: The ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC) is a relatively newly discovered functional area. It is found roughly in Brodmann area 37. Recent evidence ­suggests that the VOTC is necessary for object recognition. Interestingly, this activation is adjacent to, and may overlap with the visual word-form area. It may serve as a functional role in higher level unimodal processing of visual information. Interestingly, VOTC activation patterns may vary based on content in the images, suggesting other input to this area. Recently, evidence suggests that auditory and visual information are combined additively to sharpen visual category-selective responses. Patients with lesions to VOTC will present with a unimodal associative agnosia [13] (Fig. 47.18).
Fig. 47.18

Ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC): axial (left), sagittal (middle), and coronal (right). Task description: Patient was asked to perform a sentence completion task. Designed in a “boxcar” format, with 30 s of fill-in-the-blank sentences and 30 s of gibberish sentences. The action of sentence completion activates many areas of the brain; this scan was masked to only show activation of the VOTC (statistical threshold: P  <  0.01)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feroze B. Mohamed
    • 1
  • Michael Yannes
    • 2
  • Muhammed Malik
    • 3
  • Scott H. Faro
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyTemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyTemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyTemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Functional Brain Imaging Center and Clinical MRITemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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