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Physical Considerations for Treatment Complications of Alcohol and Drug Use and Misuse

  • Giovanni Addolorato
  • Lorenzo Leggio
  • Cristina D’Angelo
  • Anna Ferrulli
  • Antonio Mirijello
  • Silvia Cardone
  • Veruscka Leso
  • Noemi Malandrino
  • Esmeralda Capristo
  • Raffaele Landolfi
  • Giovanni Gasbarrini
Chapter

Abstract

The effects of chronic abuse of alcohol and/or other substances of abuse vary considerably, depending, for example, on the concentration and dose. Furthermore, other factors also may play a role, such as nutritional status, gender, and ethnicity. This chapter analyzes the main medical consequences related to substance abuse, namely alcohol, nicotine, opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, and benzodiazepines. The effects of these substances on the liver, gut, pancreas, nervous system, cardiovascular system, and endocrine system are analyzed and discussed. The link between substance abuse disorders and tumors is also reported, as well as the relationship between substances of abuse and nutrition and body composition.

Keywords

Alcohol Nicotine Opioids Cocaine Amphetamine Benzodiazepines Substance abuse Liver Gut Pancreas Nervous system Cardiovascular system Endocrine system Oncology Body composition 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Addolorato
    • 1
  • Lorenzo Leggio
    • 2
  • Cristina D’Angelo
    • 1
  • Anna Ferrulli
    • 1
  • Antonio Mirijello
    • 1
  • Silvia Cardone
    • 1
  • Veruscka Leso
    • 1
  • Noemi Malandrino
    • 3
  • Esmeralda Capristo
    • 3
  • Raffaele Landolfi
    • 1
  • Giovanni Gasbarrini
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University Medical SchoolProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Unit, Catholic University of RomeRomeItaly

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