A Useful Visualization Technique: A Literature Review for Augmented Reality and its Application, limitation & future direction

  • Donggang Yu
  • Jesse Sheng Jin
  • Suhuai Luo
  • Wei Lai
  • Qingming Huang
Conference paper


Augmented reality (AR), a useful visualization technique, is reviewed based literatures. The AR research methods and applications are surveyed since AR was first developed over forty years ago. Recent and future AR researches are proposed which could help researchers of decide which topics should be developed when they are beginning their own researches in the field.


Virtual Reality Augmented Reality Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy Augmented Reality System Augmented Reality Application 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. F. Guimaraes et al., FPGA infrastructure for the development of augmented reality applications, Proceedings of the 20th annual conference on Integrated circuits and systems design, Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 336-341, 2007.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Maidi et al., Robust fiducials tracking in augmented reality, In IWSSIP ’06: The 13th International Conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing, Budapest (Hungary), pp. 423-426, 2006.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Maidi et al., A performance study for camera pose estimation using visual marker based tracking, Machine Vision and Applications, Springer-Verlag, 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. Zendjebil et al., Outdoor augmented reality: State of the art and issues, VRIC’2008, pp. 177-187, 2008.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Azuma et al., Recent advances in augmented reality, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(6), pp. 34-47, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Bell et al., An annotated situation awareness aid for augmented reality, Proc. of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, New York, NY, USA, pp. 213-216, 2002.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Dias et al., Usability evaluation of tangible user interfaces for augmented reality, IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 54-61, 2003.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, Marker tracking and HMD calibration for a video-based augmented reality conferencing system, Proc. of the 2nd IEEE and ACM International Workshop on Augmented Reality, Washington, DC, USA, 1999.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Kato et al., Virtual object manipulation on a table-top ar environment, Proc. of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality, Munich, Germany, pp. 111-119, 2000.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Klinker et al., ``Fata morgana'' a presentation system for product design, Proc. of the 1st International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Kato et al., A city-planning system based on augmented reality with a tangible interface, Proc. of the 2nd IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. A. Lee et al., Occlusion based interaction methods for tangible augmented reality environments, Proc. of the 2004 ACM SIGGRAPH international conference on Virtual Reality continuum and its applications in industry, New York, NY, USA, pp. 419-426, 2004.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. E. Shelton and N. E. Hedley, Using augmented reality for teaching earthsun relationships to undergraduate geography students, ART ’02: The First IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, Darmstadt, Germany, 2002.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. Ababsa and M. Mallem, Robust camera pose estimation using 2d fiducials tracking for real-time augmented reality systems, Proc. of the 2004 ACM SIGGRAPH international conference on Virtual Reality continuum and its applications in industry, Singapore, 2004.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Koch et al., Markerless image-based 3D tracking for real-time augmented reality applications, Proc. WIAMIS 2005, Montreux, Switzerland, 2005.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Park et al., Vision-based pose computation: robust and accurate augmented reality tracking, Proc. Augmented Reality 1999 (IWAR ’99), pp. 3-12, 1999.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. Jiang et al., Camera Tracking for Augmented Reality Media, Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Multimedia Expo 2000, Los Alamitos, Calif., pp. 1637-1640, 2000.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    U. Neumann and Y. Cho, A Self-Tracking Augmented Reality System, Proc. of ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology 96, pp. 109-115, 1996.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Cho, Scalable Fiducial-Tracking Augmented Reality, Ph.D. Dissertation, Computer Science Department, University of Southern California, 1999.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Malik et al., Robust 2d tracking for real-time augmented reality, Proc. Vision Interface, 2002.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. Lee and T. Hollerer, Multithreaded Hybrid Feature Tracking for Markerless Augmented Reality, IEEE Trans. on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 355-368, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. P. Lima et al., A Standalone Markerless 3D Tracker for Handheld Augmented Reality, arXiv:0902.2187, 2009.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. M. Peters et al., Towards a Medical Virtual Reality Environment for Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery, LNCS 5128, pp. 1-11, 2008.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Henry et al., Augmented Reality Visualization for Laparoscopic Surgery, Proc. of First International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MA, USA, pp. 11-13, 1998.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Sielhorst et al., Advanced Medical Displays: A Literature Review of Augmented Reality, Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 4, pp. 451-467, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. Navab, Medical and Industrial Augmented Reality: Challenges for Real-Time Vision, Computer Graphics and Mobile Computing, LNCS 2191, 2001.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Marescaux, Augmented-RealityAssisted Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy, JAMA, Vol. 292 No. 18, pp. 2214-2215, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Balazs and E. Attila, Volumetric Medical Intervention Aiding Augmented Reality Device, Information and Communication Technologies, ICTTA’06, pp. 1091-1096, 2006.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Blackwell et al., Augmented reality and its future in orthopaedics : Computer assisted orthopaedic surgery: Medical robotics and image guided surgery, Clinical orthopaedics and related research, No. 354, pp. 111-122, 1998.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Medgadget, How About Augmented Reality in Clinical Applications?,, 2009.
  31. 31.
    A. Bornik et al., Computer aided liver surgery planning: An augmented reality approach, SPIE Medical Imaging’03, pp. 395-405, 2003.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. Fuchs et al., Augmented reality visualization for laparoscopic surgery, Proc. of the First International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, London, UK, pp. 934-943, 1998.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Gary et al., Igstk: An open source software toolkit for image-guided surgery. Computer, 39(4), pp. 46-53, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. Gering et al., An integrated visualization system for surgical planning and guidance using image fusion and an open mr., Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, volume 13, pp. 967-975, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. MacIntyre et al., Dart: The designer’s augmented reality toolkit, ISMAR, pp. 329-330, 2003.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Nicolau et al., An augmented reality system to guide radio-frequency tumour ablation, Computer Animation and Virtual World, 16(1), pp. 1-10, 2005.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Rosenthal et al., Augmented reality guidance for needle biopsies: An initial randomized, controlled trial in phantoms, Medical Image Analysis, volume 6, pp. 313-320, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Paloc et al., Computer-aided surgery based on auto-stereoscopic augmented reality, Proc. of Information Visualisation, volume 13, Eighth, pp. 189-193, 2004.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    F.K. Wacker et al, An augmented reality system for mr image-guided needle biopsy: initial results in a swine model, Radiology, 2 (238), pp. 497-504, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    D. Trevisan et al., Augmented Medical Visualization, AMI-ARCS’04, pp. 57-66, 2004.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Fischer et al, Occlusion Handling for Medical Augmented Reality using a Volumetric Phantom Model, VRST04, Hong Kong, 2004.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Pandya et al., Tracking Methods for Medical Augmented Reality, MICCAI 2001, LNCS 2208, pp. 1404-1405, 2001.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Fischer et al., A hybrid tracking method for surgical augmented reality, Computers and Graphics, 31, pp. 39-52, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Nakamoto et al., Realtime Organ Tracking for Endoscopic Augmented Reality Visualization Using Miniature Wireless Magnetic Tracker, MIAR 2008, LNCS 5128, pp. 359-366, 2008.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. Rosenthal et al., Augmented Reality Guidance for Needle Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Phantoms, LNCS 2208, pp. 240-248, 2001.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    T. Sielhorst et al., An Augmented Reality Delivery Simulator for Medical Training, AMI-ARCS’04, pp. 11-20, 2004.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    P. J. Edwards et al, Clinical Experience and Perception in Stereo Augmented Reality Surgical Navigation, LNCS 3150, pp. 369-376, 2004.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    S. Nicolau et al., An Augmented Reality and Virtuality Interface for a Puncture Guidance System: Design and Validation on an Abdominal Phantom, MIAR 2004, LNCS 3150, pp. 302-310, 2004.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. Kalkofen et al., Integrated Medical Workflow for Augmented Reality Applications, Proc. AMI-ARCS, Copenhagen, Oct 2006.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    D. Kalkofen et al., Interactive Focus and Context Visualization in Augmented Reality, Proc. 6th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Nara, Japan, pp. 191-200, 2007.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    E. Samseta, et al., Augmented Reality in Surgical Procedures, Proc. of SPIE 2008.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    L. T. De Paolis, An Augmented Reality Application for Minimally Invasive Surgery, Proc. 14th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, pp. 489-492, 2008.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. C. Shetty : Augmented Reality Training Kit Can Offer Novel Teaching Solution For Future Cardiac Surgery And Other Medical Professionals, The Internet Journal of Medical Simulation, 2(1), 2006.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Augmented reality improves training for keyhole surgery,, 2009.
  55. 55.
    M.B.I. Sanne et al., Augmented versus Virtual Reality Laparoscopic Simulation: What Is the Difference? A Comparison of the ProMIS Augmented Reality Laparoscopic Simulator versus LapSim Virtual Reality Laparoscopic Simulator, World J Surg 31, pp. 764-772, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    N. Navab et al., Action- and Workflow-Driven Augmented Reality for Computer-Aided Medical Procedures, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 27(5), pp.10-14, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Santhanam et al., Physically-based deformation of high-resolution 3D lung models for augmented reality based medical visualization, Proc. AMIARCS, Rennes, St. Malo, pp. 21-32, 2004.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    A. P. Santhanam et al., Modeling Real-Time 3-D Lung Deformations for Medical Visualization, IEEE Trans. on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 12(2), pp. 257-270, 2008.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. Nicolau t al., An accuracy certified augmented reality system for therapy guidance, ECCV’04, LNCS 3023, pp. 79-91, 2004.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    T. Studeli et al., Assessing Quality of Computer Systems and User Interfaces of Future Medical Workplaces Augmented Reality for Minimally Invasive Therapy, Proc. of the UITQ 2007 Workshop, Stockholm, Sweden, 2007.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
  62. 62.
    M. Bang Nielsen et al., G Mobile Augmented Reality Support for Architects Based on Feature Tracking Techniques, ICCS 2004, LNCS 3038, pp. 921-928, 2004.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65.
  66. 66.
  67. 67.
  68. 68.
    J. L. Izkara et al., Mobile augmented reality, an advanced tool for the construction sector, 24th W78 Conference, Maribor, 2007.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. H. Behzadan, and V. R. Kamat, Animation of Construction Activities in Out-door Augmented Reality, Proc. of the Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineer-ing, Reston, VA. 2006.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    X. Wang and P. S. Dunston, Mixed Reality Enhanced Operator Interface for Teleoperation Systems in Unstructured Environment, CD Proc. of the 10th Biennial ASCE Aerospace Division International Confer-ence on Engineering, Construction and Operations in Chal-lenging Environments (Earth and Space 2006), League City/Houston, Texas, 2006.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    H. Kimura et al., System support for mobile augmented reality services, SAC07, Seoul, Korea, 2007.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    A. Olwal and A. Henrysson, LUMAR: A Hybrid Spatial Display System for 2D and 3D Handheld Augmented Reality, 17th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence, pp. 63-70, 2007.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    J. Rekimoto, NaviCam: A Magnifying Glass Approach to Augmented Reality, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 399-412, 1997.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    T. Starner et al., Augmented Reality through Wearable Computing, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(4), pp. 386-398, 1997.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    T. Hollerer et al., Exploring MARS: Developing Indoor and Outdoor User Interfaces to a Mobile Augmented Reality System, Computers and Graphics, 23(6), pp. 779-785, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Y. Baillot et al., Authoring of Physical Models Using Mobile Computers, Proc. Intl Symp. Wearable Computers, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    W. Piekarski et al., Integrating Virtual and Augmented Realities in an Outdoor Application, Proc. 2nd Intl Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., pp. 45-54, 1999.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    B. Thomas et al., ARQuake: An Outdoor/Indoor Augmented Augmented Reality First Person Application, Proc. 4th Intl Symp. Wearable Computers (ISWC 2000), pp. 139-146, 2000.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    D. Stricker et al., Design and Development Issues for Archeoguide: An Augmented Reality based Cultural Heritage On-Site Guide, Proc. Intl Conf. Augmented Virtual Environments and 3D Imaging, Greece, pp. 1-5, 2001.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. Rekimoto et al., Augmentable Reality: Situated Communication through Physical and Digital Spaces, Proc. 2nd Intl Symp. Wearable Computers, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., pp. 68-75, 1998.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    R. Behringer et al., A Wearable Augmented Reality Testbed for Navigation and Control, Built Solely with Commercial- off-the-Shelf (COTS) Hardware, Proc. Intl Symp. Augmented Reality 2000, Calif., pp. 12-19, 2000.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    R. Azuma, J. Leonard, Performance Analysis of an Outdoor Augmented Reality Tracking System that Relies Upon a Few Mobile Beacons, Proc. of ISMAR 2006, Santa Barbara, CA, pp. 119-122, 2006.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    A. Henrysson et al., Face to Face Collaborative AR on Mobile Phones, Proc. of ISMAR 2005, 2005.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    W. Piekarski et al., Designing Backpacks for High Fidelity Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality, Proc. of ISMAR’04, Arlington, 2004.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    D. Wagner and D.Schmalstieg, ARToolKitPlus for Pose Tracking on Mobile Devices, Computer Vision Winter Workshop 2007, Austria, 2007.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Stork et al., IMPROVE: An innovative application for collaborative mobile mixed reality design review, Proc. of Virtual Concept 06, 2006.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. Cheok et al., Human Pacman: A Mobile Entertainment System with Ubiquitous Computing and Tangible Interaction over a Wide Outdoor Area, Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, LNCS 2795, pp. 209-223, 2003.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    J., Zauner and M. Haller, Authoring of Mixed Reality Applications including Multi-Marker calibration for Mobile Devices, Proc. of 10th Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments, pp. 87-90, 2004.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    P. Renevier et al., Generic Interaction Techniques for Mobile Collaborative Mixed Systems, Fifth International Conference on Computer-Aided Design of User Interfaces CADUI’2004, ACM, Funchal, pp. 307-320, 2004.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    J. Gausemeier et al., Development of a Real Time Image Based Object Recognition Method for Mobile AR-Devices, Proc. of the ACM SIGGRAPH AFRIGRAPH 2003: 2nd International Conference on Computer Graphics, Virtual Reality, Visualisation and Interaction in Africa, Cape Town, 2003.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    S. DiVerdi and T. Hollerer, GroundCam: A Tracking Modality for Mobile Mixed Reality, IEEE Virtual Reality, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, pp. 75-82, 2007.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    M. Torabi, Mobile Virtual Reality Services, Bell Labs Technical Journal. 7(2), pp. 185-193, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    A.D. Cheok, et al., Human Pacman: A Mobile Entertainment System with Ubiquitous Computing and Tangible Interaction over a Wide Outdoor Area, Proc. Mobile HCI 2004 6th International Symposium, Glasgow, UK, pp.209-223, 2004.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    D.J. McCaffery, and J. Finney, The need for real time consistency management in P2P mobile gaming environments, Proc. 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conf of Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, pp. 203-211, 2004.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    K. Mitchell, et al., Six in the City: Introducing Real Tournament A Mobile IPv6 based Context-Aware Multiplayer Game, Proc. 2nd Workshop on Network and System Support for Games, pp. 91-100, 2003.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    G. Papagiannakis and N. Magnenat-Thalmann, Mobile Augmented Heritage: Enabling Human Life in ancient Pompeii, International Journal of Architectural Computing, Multi-Science Publishing, 5(2), pp. 395-415, 2007.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    S. Feiner, The importance of being mobile: Some social consequences of wearable augmented reality systems, Proc. IWAR’99 (IEEE and ACM Int. Workshop on Augmented Reality), San Francisco, CA, pp. 145-148, 1999.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    S. Feiner et al., Wearing it out: First steps toward mobile augmented reality systems, Mixed Reality: Merging Real and Virtual Worlds, Berlin, pp. 363-377, 1999.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    T. Hollerer et al., User interface management techniques for collaborative mobile augmented reality, Computers and Graphics, 25(5), pp. 799-810, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    T. Hollerer et al., Steps toward accommodating variable position tracking accuracy in a mobile augmented reality system, Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop on Artificial Intelligence in Mobile Systems, pp. 31-37, 2001.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    S. Julier et al., Information filtering for mobile augmented reality, Proc. ISAR’00 (IEEE and ACM Int. Symposium on Augmented Reality), pp. 3-11, Munich, Germany, 2000.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    G. Klinker et al., Augmented maintenance of powerplants: a prototyping case study of a mobile AR system, Proc. ISAR ’01 (IEEE and ACM Int. Symposium on Augmented Reality), New York, NY, pp. 124-133, 2001.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    G. Reitmayr, and D. Schmalstieg, Mobile collaborative augmented reality, Proc. ISAR ’01 (Int. Symposium on Augmented Reality), pp. 114-123, New York, NY, 2001.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    X. Zhang et al., Taking AR into large scale industrial environments: Navigation and information access with mobile computers, In Proc. ISAR ’01 (Int. Symposium on Augmented Reality), New York, NY, pp. 179-180, 2001.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
  106. 106.
  107. 107.
    M. Mohring et al., Optical Tracking and Video Seethrough AR on Consumer Cell-Phones, Proc. International Symposium in Mixed and Aug-mented Reality, Arlington, USA, pp. 252-253, 2004.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    W. Pasman et al., Augmented Reality with Large 3D Models on a PDA, Implementation, Performance and Use Experiences, Int. Conf. on Virtual-Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry, Singapore, pp. 344-351, 2004.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    W. Piekarski, and B. Thomas, Tinmith evo5 An Architecture for Supporting Mobile Augmented Reality Environments, Proc. of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality, New York, USA., 2001.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    ULTRA Project ULTRA light Augmented Reality Mobile System,, Feb 2007.
  111. 111.
    D. Wagner and D. Schamalstieg, ARToolKit on the PocketPC platform, Proc. of the 2nd IEEE In-ternational Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 2003.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Zune Microsoft,, 2007.
  113. 113.
    H. T. Hllerer and S. K. Feiner, Telegeoinformatics: Location-Based Computing and Services, Taylor and Francis Books Ltd., 2004.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    G. Papagiannakis et al., A survey of mobile and wireless technologies for augmented reality systems, Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, 19(1), pp. 3-22, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    W. T. Fong et al., A Differential GPS Carrier Phase Technique for Precision Outdoor AR Tracking, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008, pp. 25-28, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    D. Pustka and G. Klinker, Dynamic Gyroscope Fusion in Ubiquitous Tracking Environments, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008, pp. 13-20, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    A. D. Cheok et al., Hunman Pacman: A Sensing-based entertainment System with Ubiquitous Computing and Tangible, Proc. of NetGame’03, pp. 106-117, 2003.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    D. Wagner et al., Pose Tracking from Natural Features on Mobile Phones, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008, pp. 125-134, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    D. Wagner et al., Robust and Unobtrusive Marker Tracking on Mobile Phones, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008, pp. 121-124, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    J. Tumler et al., Mobile Augmented Reality in Industrial Applications: Approaches for Solution of User-Related Issues, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008, pp. 87-90, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    M. Hakkarainen et al., Augmented Assembly using a Mobile Phone, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008, pp. 167-168, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kim and S. Won, Advanced Teleoperation, Graphics Aids, and Application to Time Delay Environments, Proc. of the 1st Industrial Virtual Reality Show and Conference (IVR’93), Makuhari Meese, Japan, pp. 202-207, 1993.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kim and S. Won, Virtual Reality Calibration and Preview / Predictive Displays for Telerobotics, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 5(2), pp. 173-190, 1996.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    E. Oyama et al., Experimental Study on Remote Manipulation Using Virtual Reality, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, pp. 112-124, 1993.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    G. Tharp et al., Virtual Window Telepresence System for Telerobotic Inspection, SPIE Proc. volume 2351, Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, Boston, MA, pp. 366-373, 1994.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    T. H. J. Collett and B. A. MacDonald, Developer Oriented Visualisation of a Robot Program, Proc. 2006 ACM Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 49-56, 2006.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    B. Giesler et al., Using augmented reality to interact with an autonomous mobile platform. Proc. 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Piscataway, United States, pp. 1009-1014, 2004.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    F. Zhou et al., Trends in Augmented Reality Tracking, Interaction and Display: A Review of Ten Years of ISMAR, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008, pp. 193-202, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
  130. 130.
    I. Sutheland, The ultimate display, In IFIP’65, pp. 506-508, 1965.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    M. Krueger, Artificial Reality, Addison-Wesley Professional, 1991.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
  133. 133.
    G. Klein and T. Drummond, Robust visual tracking for noninstrumented aug-mented reality, Proc. ISMAR’03, pp. 113-122, 2003.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    P. Corporation, Polhemus Trackers,
  135. 135.
    R. Azuma, Tracking Requirements for Augmented Reality, Communications of the ACM 36(7), pp. 50-51, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    K. Zikan et al., A note on dynamics of human head motions and on predictive filtering of head-set orientations, Proc. of SPIE, 2351, pp. 328-336, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    B.D. Adelstein et al., A Testbed for Characterizing Dynamic Response of Virtual Environment Spatial Sensors, Proc. of 5th Annual Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Monterey, CA, pp. 15-21, 1992.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    B. Donald, Gennery: Visual tracking of known three-dimensional objects, International Journal of Computer Vision, 7(3), pp. 243-270, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    D. Lowe, Robust model-based motion tracking through the integration of search and estimation, Intl. Journal of Computer Vision, 8, pp. 113-122, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    M. Armstrong and A. Zisserman, Robust object tracking, In Proc. Asian conference on Computer Vision, vol. I, pp. 58-61, 1995.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    L. Hohl and T. Quack, Markerless 3D Augmented Reality, Semester Thesis, CVL, ETH, 2003.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    T. Drummond and R. Cipolla, Real-time tracking of complex structureswith on-line camera calibration, Proc. British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC’99), vol. 2, BMVA, Nottingham, pp. 574-583, 1999.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    E. Marchand et al., Robust real-time visual tracking using a 2D-3D model-based approach, Proc. 7th IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV’99), vol. 1, Kerkyra, Greece, pp. 262-268, 1999.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    G. Simon and M.O. Berger, A two-stage robust statistical method for temporal registration from features of various type, In Proc. 6th IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV’98), Bombay, pp. 261-266, 1998.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    B. Espiau and F. Chaumette, A new approach to visual servoing, IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, 8, pp. 313-326, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    V. Sundareswaran and R. Behringer, Visual servoing-based augmented reality, Proc. First IEEE Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR’98), San Francisco, pp. 193-200, 1999.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    R. Behringer et al., Model-based visual tracking for outdoor augmented reality, Proc. IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR’02), Darmstadt, Germany, 2002.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    E. Marchand and F. Chaumette, Virtual visual servoing: a framework for realtime augmented reality, Proc. Eurographics 2002, 21(3), Saarbrcken, Germany, pp. 289-298, 2002.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Z. BIAN et al., Real-Time Tracking Error Estimation for Augmented Reality for Registration with Linecode Markers, IEICE TRANS. INF. and SYST., VOL.E91D, NO.7, pp. 2041-2050, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    A. Comport et al., A real-time tracker for markerless augmented reality, Proc. ISMAR’03, pp. 36-45, 2003.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    H. Wuest et al., Adaptive line tracking with multiple hypotheses for augmented reality, Proc. ISMAR’05, pp. 62-69, 2005.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    G. Reitmayr and T. Drummond, Going out: robust model-based tracking for outdoor augmented reality, Proc. ISMAR’06, pp. 109-118, 2006.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    T. Okuma et al., A Natural Feature-Based 3D Object Tracking Method for Wearable Augmented Reality, AMC’04, Kawasaki, Japan, pp.451-456, 2004.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    J. Steinbis et al., 3D Fiducials for Scalable AR Visual Tracking, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008, pp. 183-184, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    L. Vacchetti et al., Combining edge and texture information for real-time accurate 3d camera tracking, Proc. ISMAR ’04, pp. 48-57, 2004.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    E. Rosten and T. Drummond, Fusing points and lines for high performance tracking, Proc. 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV’05), vol. 2, Beijing, pp. 1508-1515, 2005.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    J.S. Jin et al., A Stable Vision System for Moving Vehicles, IEEE Trans. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 1(1), pp. 32-39 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    R.D Xu, J. G. Allen and J. S. Jin, Robust Mean-shift Tracking with Extended Fast Colour Thresholding, Proc. of 2004 International Symposium on Intelligent Multimedia, Video and Speech Processing, Hong Kong, pp. 542-545, 2004.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    L. Duan et al., A Unified Framework for Semantic Shot Classification in Sports Video, IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, 7(6), pp. 1066-1083, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    X. Tong et al., Periodicity Detection of Local Motion, Multimedia and Expo, ICME 2005, pp. 650-653, 2005.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    L. Duan and J.S. Jin et al., Nonparametric Motion Characterization for Robust Classification of Camera Motion Patterns, IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, 8(2), pp. 323-324, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    R.Y.D. Xu and J.S. Jin, Camera Control and Multimedia Interaction using Individual Object Recognition, JOURNAL OF MULTIMEDIA, 2(3), pp. 77-85, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    W. Lorensen et al., Enhancing Reality in the Operating Room, In Proc. of the 1993 IEEE Visualization Conference, pp. 410-415, 1993.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    W.E.L. Grimson et al., An Automated Registration Method for Frameless Stereotaxy, Image Guided Surgery, and Enhanced Reality Visulatization, Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 430-436, 1994.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    J.P. Mellor, Enhanced Reality Visualization in a Surgical Environment, Masters thesis, AI Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1995.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    W.E.L. Grimson et al., Evaluating and Validating an Automated Registration System for Enhanced Reality Visualization in Surgery, Proc. of Computer Vision, Virtual Reality, and Robotics in Medicine ’95, pp. 3-12, 1995.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    A. State et al., Case Study: Observing a Volume Rendered Fetus within a Pregnant Patient, Proc. of the 1994 IEEE Visualization Conference, pp. 364-368, 1994.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    M. Uenohara, and T. Kanade, Vision-Based Object Registration for Real-Time Image Overlay, Computer Vision, Virtual Reality and Robotics in Medicine: CVRMed ’95, pp. 14-22, 1995.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    F. Betting et al., A New Framework for Fusing Stereo Images with Volumetric Medical Images, Proc. of Computer Vision, Virtual Reality, and Robotics in Medicine ’95, pp. 30-39, 1995.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    G. Klein, Visual Tracking for Augmented Reality, PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 2006.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    J. R. Vallino, Interactive Augmented Reality, PhD thesis, University of Rochester, 1998.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    C. Harris, Tracking with rigid models, A. Blake, ed., Active Vision, chap. 4, pp. 59-73, MIT Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    E. Foxlin et al., Flight Tracker: A novel optical/inertial tracker for cockpit enhanced vision, ISMAR’04, pp. 212-221, 2004.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    F. Sauer et al., Augmented reality visualization of ultrasound images: System description, calibration, and featur, Proc. International Symposium for Augmented Reality, New York, USA, 2001.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    F. Sauer et al., Augmented workspace: Designing an AR testbed, Proc. International Symposium for Augmented Reality, pp. 165-174, Munich, Germany, October 2000.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    F. Sauer et al., A head-mounted display system for augmented reality image guidance: Towards clinical evaluation for imriguided neurosurgery, Proc. MICCAI, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2001.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    C. Ludwig and C. Reimann, Augmented Reality:Information at Focus, C-LAB Report, 4(1), Cooperative Computing & Communication Laboratory, 2005.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    K. Bonsor, How Augmented Reality Will Work,, 2009.
  179. 179.
    R. Silva et al., Introduction to Augmented Reality, Technical Report: 25/2003, LNCC, Brazil, 2003.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    J.R. Vallino, Introduction to Augmented Reality,∼jrv/research/ar/introduction.html, 2002.
  181. 181.
    M. Sairio, Augmented Reality, Helsinki University of Technology, 2002.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    R. Azuma. A survey of augmented reality, Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6(4), pp. 355-385, 1997.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    R.L.S. SILVA et al., Augmented Reality for Scientific Visualization: Bringing Data Sets inside the Real World, Proc. SCSC’04, pp. 520-525, 2004.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    A. Scott et al., Human-Robot Collaboration: A Literature Review and Augmented Reality Approach in Design, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 5(1), pp. 1-18, 2008.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    E. Ethrigde, Head Mounted Displays (HMD), The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,, Referenced 2001.
  186. 186.
    MATRIX: visual-marker based Augmented Reality,, 2009.
  187. 187.
    B.C.A. Fernandes and J. F. Sanchez, Acceptance of an Augmented Reality system as a visualization tool for Computer-Aided Design classes, Interactive Educational Multimedia, 16, pp. 1-8, 2008.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    F.J. Toledo et al., Image Processing with CNN in a FPGA-Based Augmented Reality System for Visually Impaired People, IWANN 2005, LNCS 3512, pp. 906-912, 2005.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    K. Nagao and J. Rekimoto, Agent Augmented Reality: A Software Agent Meets the Real World, Proc. ICMAS-96, pp. 228-235, 1996.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    A.B. Brody and E. J. Gottsman, Pocket BargainFinder: A Handheld Device for Augmented Commerce, Proc. International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC’99), 1999.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    W. Zhu, et al., Personalized In-store E-Commerce with the PromoPad: an Augmented Reality Shopping Assistant, The Electronic Journal for E-Commerce Tools & Applications, 2004. 1(3).Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    W. Zhu et al., Design of the PromoPad: an Automated Augmented Reality Shopping Assistant, 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems, Acapulco, Mexico, 2006.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Yuzhu Lu and Shana Smith, Augmented Reality E-Commerce Assistant System: Trying While Shopping, Human-Computer Interaction, Part II, HCII 2007, LNCS 4551, pp. 643-652, 2007.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
  195. 195.
    New MINI augmented reality ad is a creative masterpiece,, 2009.
  196. 196.
    M.A. Livingston et al., An augmented reality system for military operations in urban terrain, Proc. Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference, (I/ITSEC ’02), Orlando, Florida, pp. 1-8, 2002.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    N.R. Hedley et al., Explorations in the use of augmented reality for geographic visualization, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11(2), pp.119-133, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    A. Moore, Cubes, shadows and comic strips - a.k.a. interfaces, metaphors and maps?, In: 16th Annual Colloquium of the Spatial Information Research Centre, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 97-102, 2004.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    F. Liarokapis et al., Mobile Augmented Reality Techniques for GeoVisualisation, Proc. Ninth International Conference on Information Visualisation, pp. 745-751, 2005.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    W. Qi, A Vision-Based Augmented Reality System for Visualization Interaction, iv, Proc. Ninth International Conference on Information Visualisation, pp.404-409, 2005.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    C. Brenner, The Geoscope a Mixed- Reality System for Planning and Public Participation, UDMS 2006, 2006.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    F. Liarokapis et al., Exploring Urban Environments Using Virtual and Augmented Reality, Journal of Virtual Reality and Broadcasting, 3(5), pp. 1-13, 2007.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    J.M. Krisp, Geovisualization and knowledge discovery for decision making in ecological network planning, doctoral dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology, 2006.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    P. Ghadirian and I. D. Bishop, Integration of augmented reality and GIS: A new approach to realistic landscape visualisation, Landscape and Urban Planning, 86, pp. 226-232, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    S. Nebiker et al., Smart Point Clouds in Virtual Globes a New Paradigm in CityIModeling?,, 2009.
  206. 206.
    E. C. Urban, The Information Warrior, IEEE Spectrum, 32(11), pp. 66-70, 1995.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Demo: Military Application : Operational contents manipulation on a virtual topographic map,, 2008.
  208. 208.
    C. E. Howard, Department of Defense invests in delivering augmented reality technology to foot soldiers,, 2007.
  209. 209.
    Canadian helicopter verifies night vision system with Ascension’s laserBIRD,, 2004.
  210. 210.
    K. Ahlers et al, Distributed Augmented Reality for Collaborative Design Applications, ECRC-95-03, 1995.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    S. Feiner et al., Architectural anatomy, In Presence, 4(3), pp. 318-325, 1995.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    A. Webster et al., Augmented reality in architectural construction, inspection and renovation, Proc. ASCE Third Congress on Computing in Civil Engineering, Anaheim, CA, pp. 913-919, 1996.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    B. Thomas, Using Augmented Reality to Visualize Architecture Designs in an Outdoor Environment, Design Computing on the Net November, 1999.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    K. Kensek et al., Augmented Reality: an application for architecture, Proc. 8th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, ASCE, Stanford, CA, pp. 294-301, 2000.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    J. Shen et al., Urban Planning Using Augmrnted Reslity, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, pp. 118-125, SEPTEMBER 2001.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    E. Ben-Joseph, Urban Simulation and the Luminous Planning Table: Bridging the Gap between the Digital and the Tangible, Journal of Planning and Education Research, Vol. 21, pp. 196-203, 2001.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    T. Gleue and P. Dahne, Design and Implementation of a Mobile Device for Outdoor Augmented Reality in the ARCHEOGUIDE Project, Proc. of the ACM Conference on Virtual reality, Archeology, and Cultural Heritage, pp. 161-168, 2002.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    H. Ishii et al., Augmented urban planning workbench: overlaying drawings, physical models and digital simulation, Proc. of the International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2002), pp. 203-211, 2002.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    W. Piekarski and B. H. Thomas, Interactive Augmented Reality Techniques for Construction at a Distance of 3D Geometry, IPT/EGVE 2003, Zurich, Switzerland, 2003.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    J.M.S. Dias et al., A4D: Augmented Reality 4D System for Architecture and Building Construction, CONVR 2003, Virginia Tech, 2003.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    A. Malkawi et al., Interactive, Immersive Visualization for Indoor Environments: Use of Augmented Reality, Human-Computer Interaction and Building Simulation, Proc. of the Eighth International Conference on Information Visualization, pp. 833-838, 2004.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    W. Broll et al., ARTHUR: A Collaborative Augmented Environment for Architectural Design and Urban Planning, Proc. of Seventh International Conference on Humans and Computers, pp. 102-109, 2004.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    A.H. Behzadan and V.R. Kamat, Visualization of construction graphics in outdoor augmented reality, Proc. of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 1914-1920, 2005.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    C.T. Chen and T.W. Chang, Spatially Augmented Reality Design Environment, Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Van Leeuwen, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 487-499, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    A. Sa et al., Augmented reality to Aid Construction Management, CMNE/CILAMCE 2007, Portugal, 2007.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Y. Guo et al., Application of Augmented Reality GIS in Architecture, Proc. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Beijing, pp. 331-336, 2008.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    D.A. Belcher, Augmented Reality, Architecture and Ubiquity: Technologies, Theories and Frontiers, thesis, University of Washington, 2008.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    J. Lertlakkhanakul et al, Using the Mobile Augmented Reality Techniques for Construction Management, Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2005), pp. 396-403, 2005.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    W. Lonsing, Augmented Reality as Tool in Architecture, Proc. of the 22nd eCAADe Conference: Architecture in the Network Society, pp. 495-499, 2004.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Malkawi, A. and R. Srinivasan, Building Performance Visualization Using Augmented Reality, Proc. of the Fourteenth International Conference on Computer Graphics and Vision, pp. 122-127, 2004.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    S. Park and J. Choi, Retrieving and Browsing Information of Building Equipment Using Augmented Reality Techniques, Proc. of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2004), pp. 911-926, 2004.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    H. Seichter and M.A. Schnabel, Digital and Tangible Sensation: An Augmented Reality Urban Design Studio, Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2005), pp. 193-202, 2005.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    M. Daily et al., World Embedded Interfaces for Human-Robot Interaction, Proc. of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS03), 2003.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    M. Stilman, Augmented Reality for Robot Development and Experimentation, report, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2005.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    H. Worn et al., New augmented reality and robotic based methods for head-surgery, Int. J. Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 1(3), pp. 49-56, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    T. Akinbiyi et al., Dynamic Augmented Reality for Sensory Substitution in Robot-Assisted Surgical Systems, EMBS ’06, pp. 567-570, 2006.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    M. Kostandov et al., Robot gaming and learning using augmented reality, In ACM SIGGRAPH Technical Posters, San Diego, CA, USA, Aug 2007.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    J.W.S. Chong et al., Methodologies for Immersive Robot Programming in an Augmented Reality Environment, The International Journal of Virtual Reality, 6(1), pp. 69-79, 2007.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    H. Portilla and L. Basanez, Augmented Reality Tools for Enhanced Robotics Teleoperation Systems, Proc. 3DTV Conference 2007, pp. 1-4, 2007.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    J.C. Maida et al., Improving Robotic Operator Performance Using Augmented Reality, Proc. of the Human Factors and Ergonomics SocietyO 51st ANNUAL MEETING, pp. 1635-1639, 2007.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    N. Suzuki, Benefits of augmented reality function for laparoscopic and endoscopic surgical robot systems, Proc. MICCAI 2008, New York City, USA, 2008.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    H. Lee et al., Augmented Reality Based Vision System for Network Based Mobile Robot, APCHI 2008, LNCS 5068, pp. 123-130, 2008.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    I. Y. Chen at al., Markerless Augmented Reality for Robots in Unprepared Environments, Australian Conference on Robotics and Automation 2008, 2008.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    I. Y. Chen at al., Markerless Augmented Reality for Robotic Helicoptor Applications, RobVis 2008, LNCS 4931, pp. 125-138, 2008.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    J. Schulze-Ferebee, KUKA Roboter enhances perception of reality in robotics, KUKA Roboter GmbH, 2008.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    L. Su et al., Augmented Reality During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: Toward Real-Time 3D-CT to Stereoscopic Video Registration, UROLOGY 73 (4), pp. 896-900, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    C. Java et al, An augmented reality interface for training robotics through the web, Proc. of the 40th International Symposium on Robotics, Barcelona, pp. 189-194, 2009.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    J. W. S. Chong et al., Robot programming using augmented reality: An interactive method for planning collision-free paths, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 25(3), pp. 689-701, 2009.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    V. Raghavan et al., Interactive Evaluation of Assembly Sequences Using Augmented Reality, IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, 15(3), pp. 435-449, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    O.W. Bertelsen and C. Nielsen, Augmented reality as a design tool for mobile interfaces, Proc. of the Third Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS 2000), pp. 185-192, 2000.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    B. Schwald et al., Starmate: Using augmented reality technology for computer guided maintenance of complex mechanical elements, E-work and ECommerce, pp. 196-202, 2001.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    F. Fruend et al., AR-based Product Design in Automobile Industry, The First IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, 2002.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    B. Schwald and B. Laval, An augmented reality system for training and assistance to maintenance in the industrial context, 11th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision’2003, 2003.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    S. Goose et al., Speech-Enabled Augmented Reality Supporting Mobile Industrial Maintenance, Pervasive Computing, pp. 65-70, JANUARYMARCH 2003.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    F.G. Hamza-Lup et al., Distributed training system with high-resolution deformable virtual models, Proc. of the 43rd Annu. ACM Southeast Conf., Kennesaw, GA, 2005.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    C. Ke et al., An Augmented reality-based Application for Equipment Maintenance, LNCS, 3784, pp. 836-841, 2005.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Y.L. Poh et al., Facilitating Mechanical Design with Augmented Reality, Singapore-MIT Alliance Symposium, Singapore, 2005.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    H. Regenbrecht et al., Augmented Reality Projects in Automotive and Aerospace Industry, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 48-56, November/December 2005.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    W. Dangelmaier et al., Virtual and augmented reality support for discrete manufacturing system simulation, Computers in Industry, 56, pp. 371-383, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    A. E. Majoros and W. R. Jackson, Technology Augmented Reality for Space Flight Training and Mission Support American, American Astronautical Society National Conference and 52’nd Annual Meeting ``Building Bridges to Exploration: The Role of the International Space Station’’, Houston, Texas, 2005.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    B. Kang et al., An Augmented Reality System for Computer Maintenance, ICAT 2006, LNCS 4282, pp. 284-291, 2006.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Y. Pang et al., Assembly feature design in an augmented reality environment, Assembly Automation, 26(1), pp. 34-43, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    M.L. Yuan et al., Augmented reality for assembly guidance using a virtual interactive tool, International Journal of Production Research, 46(7), pp. 1745-1767, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    J. Christian, Augmented Reality in Corporate Pervasive e-Education: Novel ways to support aviation maintenance training, Innovation North Research Conference 2006, Leeds Metropolitance University, 2006.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    M. Haller et al., Shared Design Space: Sketching ideas using digital pens and a large augmented tabletop setup, Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence, ICAT 2006, China, 2006.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    X. Wang and P. S. Dunston, Design, Strategies, and Issues towards an Augmented Reality-based Construction Training Platform, Journal of Information Technology in Construction, International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB), 12, pp. 363-380, 2007.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    X. Wang et al., Perceptions of Augmented Reality in the Design Sector, 7th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, pp. 132-138, 2007.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    F.G. Hamza-Lup et al., Distributed Augmented Reality With 3-D Lung Dynamics-A Planning Tool Concept, IEEE Trans. on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 11(1), pp. 40-46, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    H. Wuest and D. Stricker, Tracking of industrial objects by using CAD models, Journal of Virtual Reality and Broadcasting, 4 (1), 2007.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Z. Bian et al., Development of a Tracking Method for Augmented Reality Applied to NPP Maintenance Work and its Experimental Evaluation, IEICE Trans. on Information and Systems, E90-D(6), pp. 963-974, 2007.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    B. Reitinger et al., Augmented reality scouting for interactive 3d reconstruction, in Proc. of IEEE Virtual Reality, pp. 219-222, 2007.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    H. Ishii, Augmented Reality Applications for Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Work, International Symposoum on Symbiotic Nuclear Power System for 21 Century (IAANP2008), pp. 262-268, 2008.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    X. Wang et al., An Empirical Study on Designers’ Perceptions of Augmented Reality within an Architectural FIRM, Information Technologies in Construction (ITcon), 13, pp. 536-551, 2008.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    J. Saaski et al, Integration of design and assembly using augmented reality, In Proc. IPAS’2008, Chamonix, France, 2008.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    A.H. Behzadan et al., General-purpose modular hardware and software frame-work for mobile outdoor augmented reality applications in engineering, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 22, pp. 90-105, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    D. Bradley et al., Augmented Reality on Cloth with Realistic Illumination, Machine Vision and Applications, 20 (2), 2009.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    C. Salzmann et al., Remote Experimentation: Improving User Perception Using Augmented Reality, NIWeek 2000, Austin, TX, pp. 17-20, 2000.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    M. Billinghurst et al., The MagicBookMoving Seamlessly between Reality and Virtuality, IEEE Comput. Graph, 21(3), pp. 6-8, 2001.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    J.R. Cooperstock, The classroom of the future: enhancing education through augmented reality, Proc. HCI Inter. 2001 Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction, New Orleans, USA, pp. 688-692, 2001.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    F. Liarokapis, Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE), World Trans. on Engineering and Technology Education, 1(2), pp. 173-176, 2002.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    B.E. Shelton and N.R. Hedley, Using augmented reality for teaching earth-sun relationships to undergraduate geography students, Proc. of the First IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, Darmstadt, Germany, 2002.Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    H. Kaufmann and D. Schmalstieg, Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality, Computers and Graphics, vol. 27, pp. 339-345, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    S. Zagoranski and S. Divjak, Use of Augmented Reality in Education, Proc. EU-ROCON 2003 Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 339-342, 2003.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    H. Kaufmann, Geometry Education with Augmented Reality, Ph.D. Thesis. Vienna: Vienna University of Technology, 2004.Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    H. Kaufmann et al., Improving Spatial Abilities by Geometry Education in Augmented Reality - Application and Evaluation Design, First International VR-Learning Seminar at Virtual Reality International Conference (VRIC), Laval, 2005.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    H. Kaufmann et al., General Training of Spatial Abilities by Geometry Education in Augmented Reality, Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine: A Decade of VR, 3, pp. 65-76, 2005.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    H. Kaufmann, The Potential of Augmented Reality in Dynamic Geometry Education, 12th International Conference on Geometry and Graphics, Salvador, Brazil, 2006.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    H. Kaufmann and M. Papp, Learning Objects for Education with Augmented Reality, Proc. of EDEN 2006 (European Distance and E-Learning Network) Conference, Vienna 2006, pp. 160-165, 2006.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    A. Dnser et al., Virtual and Augmented Reality as Spatial Ability Training Tools, Proc. of the 7th ACM SIGCHI, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 125-132, 2006.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Y.C. Chen, A study of comparing the use of augmented reality and physical models in chemistry education, Proc. of the 2006 ACM international conference on virtual reality continuum and its applications, pp. 369-372, 2006.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    H. Kaufmann and A. Dunser, Summary of Usability Evaluations of an Educational Augmented Reality Application, LNCS 4563, pp. 660-669, 2007.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    M. Olabe et al., Engineering Multimedia Contents with Authoring Tools of Augmented Reality,, 2007.
  293. 293.
    M. Said and N. Ismail, Overview of Open Source Augmented Reality Toolkit, 1st International Malaysian Educational Technology Convention, 2007.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    E. Medina and S. Weghorst, Understanding biochemistry with Augmented Reality, Proc. of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2007, pp. 4235-4239, 2007.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    M. Fjeld, Tangible User Interface for Chemistry Education: Comparative Evaluation and Re-Design, Proc. CHI 2007, San Jose, CA, USA, pp. 805-808, 2007.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    E.P. Affonso1 and A.C. Sementille, Support on the Remote Interaction for Augmented Reality System, 17th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence 2007, pp. 190-196, 2007.Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    H. Kaufmann and B. Meyer, Simulating educational physical experiments in augmented reality, In Siggraph asia 08: Acm siggraph asia 2008 educators programme, pp. 1-8, 2008.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    P. Buchanan et al., Augmented Reality and Rigid Body Simulation for Edutainment, Proc. Advanced in Computer Entertainment Technology 2008, pp. 17-20, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    C. Juan et al., An Augmented Reality System for Learning the Interior of the Human Body, Proc. of the 2008 Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning, pp. 186-188, 2008.Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    E. Klopfer, Augmented learning: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games, The MIT Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    M. Vilkoniene, Influence of augmented reality technology upon pupils’ knowledge about human digestive system: The results of the experiment, US-China Education Review, 6(1), pp. 36-43, 2009.Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    P. Maier et al., Augmented Reality for teaching spatial relations, Conference of the International Journal of Arts & Sciences 2009, Toronto, 2009.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    K. Mase et al., Meta-Museum: A Supportive Augmented-Reality Environment by For Knowledge Sharing, International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia 1996, pp. 107-110, 1996.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    S. Feineret al., A Touring Machine: Prototyping 3D Mobile Augmented Reality Systems for Exploring the Urban Environment, In Proc. ISWC’97, Cambridge, MA, pp. 74-81, 1997.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    D. Ingram, Trust-based Filtering for Augmented Reality, Proc. of the First International Conference on Trust Management, LNCS 2692, 2003.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    R. Wojciechowski et al., Building Virtual and Augmented Reality Museum Exhibitions, Proc. of the ninth international conference on 3D Web technology (2004), pp. 135-144, 2004.Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    M. Martinez and G. Munoz, Designing augmented interfaces for guided tours using multimedia sketches, In Proc. of the Workshop MIXER’04, Funchal, Madeira, 2004.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    P.A.S. Sinclair, Integrating Hypermedia Techniques Integrating Hypermedia Techniques, Ph.D thesis, University of Southampton, 2004.Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    F. Fritz et al., Enhancing Cultural Tourism experiences with Augmented Reality Technologies, The 6th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage VAST, 2005.Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    F. Liarokapis and M. White, Augmented Reality Techniques for Museum Environments, The Mediterranean Journal of Computers and Networks, 1(2), pp. 90-96, 2005.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    A. Damala et al., Merging Augmented Reality Based Features in Mobile Multimedia Museum Guides, XXI International CIPA Symposium, Athens, Greece, 2006.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    D.H. Lee and J. Park, Augmented Reality Based Museum Guidance System for Selective Viewings, Second Workshop on Digital Media and its Application in Museum and Heritages, pp. 379-382, 2007.Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    F. Diez-Diaz et al., An Accesible and Collaborative Tourist Guide Based on Augmented Reality and Mobile Devices, Universal Access in HCI 2007, LNCS 4555, pp. 353-362, 2007.Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    H. Su et al., Research and Implementation of Hybrid Tracking Techniques in Augmented Museum Tour System, Edutainment 2008, LNCS 5093, pp. 636-643, 2008.Google Scholar
  315. 315.
    S. Bres and B. Tellez, Localisation and Augmented Reality for Mobile Applications in Culture Heritage,
  316. 316.
    B. Thomas, Challenges of Making Outdoor Augmented Reality Games Playable, In 2nd CREST Workshop on Advanced Computing and Communicating Techniques for Wearable Information Playing, 2003.Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    D. Schmalstieg, Augmented reality techniques in games, Proc. Fourth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2005.Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    K. Kuikkaniemi et al., Toolkit for User-created Augmented Reality Games, MUM06, Stanford, CA, USA, 2006.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    W. Broll et al., Meeting Technology Challenges of Pervasive Augmented Reality Games, Netgames’06, Singapore, 2006.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    W. Litzlbauer et al., Neon Racer: Augmented Gaming, In 10th Central European Seminar on Computer Graphics, CESCG 2006, Slovakia, 2006.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    M. Rohs, Marker-Based Embodied Interaction for Handheld Augmented Reality Games, Journal of Virtual Reality and Broadcasting, 4(5), 2007.Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    C. Geiger et al., Development of an Augmented Reality Game by Extending a 3D Authoring System, Proc. of the 2007 ACM SIGCHI international conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology, Salzburg, Austria, 2007.Google Scholar
  323. 323.
    Z.O. Toups and A. Kerne, Location-Aware Augmented Reality Gaming for Emergency Response Education: Concepts and Development, CHI 2007, San Jose, USA, 2007.Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    D.C. Silva and V. Vinhas, An Interactive Augmented Reality Battleship Game Implementation, Proc. Learning with Games, pp. 213-219, 2007.Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    K. Cho et al., Ghost Hunter: A Handheld Augmented Reality Game System with Dynamic Environment, Entertainment Computing ICEC 2007, LNCS 4740, pp. 10-15, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    J. Schulz, Augmented Reality in Computer Games,, 2007.
  327. 327.
    Ohan Oda et al., Developing an Augmented Reality Racing Game, The Second International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment (ICST INTETAIN ’08), 2008.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    H.S. Lee and J.W. Lee, Mathematical Education Game Based on Augmented Reality, Edutainment 2008, LNCS 5093, pp. 442-450, 2008.Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    F.C. Luz et al., Augmented Reality for Games, DIMEA’08, Athens, Greece, 2008.Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    G. N. Yannakakis and J. Hallam, Real-time Adaptation of Augmented-Reality Games for Optimizing Player Satisfaction, In Proc. of the IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games, Perth, Australia, 2008.Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    G. N. Yannakakis, How to Model and Augment Player Satisfaction: A Review, in Proc. of the 1st Workshop on Child, Computer and Interaction, ICMI’08, Chania, Crete, 2008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag US 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donggang Yu
    • 1
  • Jesse Sheng Jin
    • 1
  • Suhuai Luo
    • 1
  • Wei Lai
    • 2
  • Qingming Huang
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Design, Communication and Information TechnologyThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Information and Communication TechnologiesSwinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia
  3. 3.Graduate University, China Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations