Positive Prevention: HIV Risk Reduction for People Living with HIV/AIDS

  • Seth C. Kalichman
  • Leickness C. Simbayi


Over the history of the HIV/AIDS pandemic there have been remarkable successes in stemming the spread of HIV, including reductions in unsafe sex in United States and European gay communities in the early 1980s and averting an AIDS catastrophe in Uganda in the 1990s. Effective HIV screening programmes have yielded universally safe blood supplies, antiretroviral (ARV) therapies have the potential to all but eliminate perinatal HIV transmission and male circumcision has been proven to reduce the risk of female-to-male HIV sexual transmission. Along with these successes have also come several prevention disappointments. The search for new approaches to preventing HIV transmission has included cervical protective barriers, suppression of herpes simplex virus, vaginal microbicides and most notably a safe and effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine, none of which has yet demonstrated efficacy. In light of the discouraging progress in biomedical approaches to HIV prevention as well as the continued amplification of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is renewed interest in behavioural strategies for preventing new HIV infections.


Male Circumcision Viral Burden Human Science Research Council Positive Prevention Safe Blood Supply 
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Preparation of this chapter was supported by grants R01-MH71164 and R01-MH74371 from the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seth C. Kalichman
    • 1
  • Leickness C. Simbayi
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for HIV Intervention and PreventionUniversity of South CarolinaStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Human Sciences Research CouncilCape TownSouth Africa

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