Introduction and Overview

  • Poul Rohleder
  • Leslie Swartz
  • Seth C. Kalichman
  • Leickness C. Simbayi


In June 1981, a rare form of pneumonia, Pneumocystis Carinii, was diagnosed in five young homosexual men in Los Angeles in the United States. The diagnoses were reported in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) (Gottlieb et al., 1981). Other reports began to emerge in the United States of other unusual disease presentations, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was named a year later. The report in the MMWR was to be the first reported cases of AIDS in the world. In South Africa, the first two reported cases of AIDS were diagnosed in two male homosexuals and documented in 1983 in the South African Medical Journal (Ras et al., 1983). Following on these and other reported cases and the discovery of AIDS, the agent that causes AIDS was officially named in 1986 as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Social Science Research Male Circumcision 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Poul Rohleder
    • 1
  • Leslie Swartz
    • 2
  • Seth C. Kalichman
    • 3
  • Leickness C. Simbayi
    • 2
  1. 1.Anglia Ruskin UniversityCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Stellenbosch UniversityStellenboschSouth Africa
  3. 3.University of South CarolinaStorrsUSA

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