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Social Behavior of Callimicos: Mating Strategies and Infant Care

  • Leila M. Porter
  • Paul A. Garber
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)

Abstract

Callimico (Callimico goeldii) is the only species of tamarin or marmoset to regularly produce one infant, possibly representing a derived trait. Studies of adult–infant interactions among callimicos, therefore, offer important insights into the evolution of cooperative infant care in callitrichids. We studied a group of callimicos consisting of one adult female (FH), two adult males (MR and MJ), and one young female (FS), at a Bolivian field site. Opportunistic data on infant care and mating behavior were taken for 3 months following FS’s birth. Then, for 8 months, behavioral data and nearest neighbor distances were collected using focal animal sampling for 1,199 observation hours. Nearest neighbor distances among group members varied significantly (p < 0.001): on average the breeding female was found 2.7 m from her infant, 2.8 m from adult male MJ, and 3.5 m from adult male MR. The frequency of grooming behaviors varied significantly among adults (p < 0.001): FH was groomed most (8.4% of observations) and spent the least time grooming others (3.4%), while MR was groomed least (5.9%) and groomed others most (10.7%). Although FH was observed mating with both males within 2 months after the birth of FS, she did not give birth to additional offspring. All adults shared food with and carried the infant. Adults also shared food with each other. Aggressive behavior among adults was extremely rare (n = 8) and occurred six times in a feeding context and twice in a non-feeding context. These data demonstrate that despite producing singletons, callimicos like many other callitrichids are characterized by a polyandrous mating pattern, spatially cohesive groups, and high levels of social cooperation.

Keywords

Neighbor Distance Breeding Female Infant Care Dominant Female Hormonal Suppression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Resumen

Callimico (Callimico goeldii) es la única especie de tamarinos o mar­mosetas que regularmente produce sólo un infante, posiblemente representando un rasgo derivado. Por tanto, estudios de las interacciones adulto-infante entre los calimicos ofrecen importantes ideas sobre la evolución cooperativa del cuidado del infante en los callitrícidos. Estudiamos un grupo de calimicos, que consistía en una hembra adulta (FH), dos machos adultos (MR y MJ) y una hembra joven (FS), en una localidad en Bolivia. Datos sobre cuidado de infantes y conducta de apareamiento fueron tomados de manera oportunista durante tres meses seguido al nacimiento de FS. Posteriormente, información sobre el comportamiento y distancias del vecino más cercano fueron recolectadas durante ocho meses utilizando un muestreo animal-focal, y completando 1,199 horas de observación. Las distancias más cercanas entre los miembros del grupo variaron significativamente (p < 0.001): en promedio la hembra reproductora fue encontrada 2.7 m de su infante, 2.8 m del macho adulto MJ y 3.5 m del macho adulto MR. La frecuencia de la conducta de acicalamiento varió significativamente entre adultos (p < 0.001): FH fue el más acicalado (8.4% de las observaciones) y paso el menor tiempo acicalando a otros (3.4%), mientras que MR fue el menos acicalado (5.9%) y acicaló más a otros (10.7%). A pesar de que se observó apareamiento entre FH y ambos machos dentro de los dos meses siguientes al nacimiento de FS, no se produjeron crías adicionales. Todos los adultos compartieron comida y cargaron al infante. Los adultos también intercambiaron comida entre ellos. Comportamiento agresivo entre los adultos fue extremadamente raro (N = 8) y ocurriendo en seis ocasiones en contexto de alimentación y en dos ocasiones en contextos no alimenticios. Esta información demuestra que, a pesar que producir hijos únicos, los calimicos como muchas de las otras callitricidos son caracterizados por patrones de comportamiento poliándrico, grupos espacialmente cohesivos y niveles altos de cooperación social.

Resumo

Sagüi-de-goeldi (Callimico goeldii) é a única espécie dentre os micos e sagüis que produz, regularmente, um infante, representando possivelmente uma característica derivada. Portanto, estudos sobre as interações adultos-infantes entre sagüis-de-goeldi oferecem importantes informações sobre a evolução do cuidado cooperativo em calitriquídeos. Nós estudamos um grupo de sagüis-de-goeldi, formado por uma fêmea adulta (FH) dois machos adultos (MR e MJ) e uma fêmea jovem (FS) em uma estação de campo na Bolívia. Foram coletados de modo oportunístico dados sobre o cuidado à prole e sobre o comportamento de acasalamento 3 meses após o nascimento de FS. A seguir, foram coletados, durante 8 meses, os dados comportamentais e a distância entre os animais mais próximos usando o método focal durante 1,199 horas de observação. As menores distâncias entre os membros do grupo variaram significativamente (p < 0.001): em média a fêmea reprodutora ficou a 2.7 m do seu infante, 2.8 do macho adulto MJ e 3.5 m do outro macho adulto MR. A freqüência de catação social variou significativamente entre adultos (p < 0.001): FH foi a que recebeu mais catação (8.4% das observações) e gastou o menor tempo catando os outros animais (3.4%) enquanto MR foi catado menos (5.9%) e catou mais os outros animais (10.7%). Embora FH tenha acasalado com ambos os machos nos dos dois meses após o nascimento de FS, ela não deu cria adicionais. Todos os adultos partilharam alimento com os infantes e os carregaram. Os adultos também partilharam alimento entre si. Os comportamentos agressivos entre adultos foram muito raros (n = 8), sendo 6 deles no contexto alimentar. Os dados demonstram que a despeito de gerar filhotes únicos, sagüis-de-goeldi, da mesma forma que muitos outros calitriquídeos, são caracterizados por um padrão poliândrico de acasalamento, sendo os grupos espacialmente coesos e com níveis elevados de cooperação social.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Chicago Zoological Society, the Primate Action Fund of Conservation International, and the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Thanks to Edilio Nacimento, Julio Flores, and Fransisco Brilhante, for their help with habituation, Edilio Nacimento, Ruddy Cuadiay, Ruht Cuadiay, Carlos Amotari, and Erica Berloz, for their help with data collection, and Sarah Garner for her help with data entry. PAG thanks Sara and Jenni for their insights on more and less effective infant care strategies.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA

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