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Conservation of the Marmosets and Callimicos

Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)

Abstract

The marmosets and callimicos are a diverse group of primates distributed over much of tropical South America, south of the Amazon and east of the Andes. All but three species are endemic to Brazil. Given their small size and ecological flexibility, these primates are relatively resistant to the effects of habitat fragmentation, although the small geographic ranges of some species make them vulnerable to extensive habitat loss, a problem typical of the Atlantic Forest. For this reason, two species – Callithrix aurita and Callithrix flaviceps – are currently considered endangered, and the remaining Atlantic Forest endemics appear to be relatively vulnerable to extinction. The consolidation of the remaining forest, and the management of marmoset metapopulations are the main priorities in this biome. In the Amazon, by contrast, while deforestation is still a distant threat to most species, recent discoveries have resulted in an increasing number of species with relatively small geographic ranges, which are potentially vulnerable to localized concentrations of human colonization. Recent trends indicate that the true diversity of the Amazonian marmosets (possibly including Cebuella and Callimico) is still unknown, and that further research is necessary before conservation strategies can be planned effectively. Overall, more data on the biological, ecological and genetic characteristics of all the species will be required in order to guarantee their conservation over the long term.

Keywords

Geographic Range Habitat Fragmentation Remnant Population Lion Tamarin Terra Firme Forest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Resumen

Los marmosets y los callimicos son un grupo diverso de primates distribuidos sobre la mayor parte de Sudamérica tropical al sur del Amazonas y al este de los Andes. Tres de las especies son endémicas de Brasil. Dado su pequeño tamaño y flexibilidad ecológica, dichos primates son relativamente resistentes a los efectos de fragmentación de habitat, a pesar de que los pequeños ámbitos geográficos de algunas de las especies los hacen vulnerables a una perdida extensiva de habitat, la cual es típica del bosque del Atlántico. Debido a ello, dos especies del bosque Atlántico – Callithrix aurita y Callithrix flaviceps – son actualmente consideradas en peligro, y los restantes endémicas parecen estar relativamente vulnerables. La consolidación del resto del habitat y el manejo de la metapoblaciones son la mayor prioridad en dicha bioma. En contraste, en el Amazonas, mientras la deforestación es todavía una amenaza distante para la mayoria de las especies, descubrimientos recientes han dado como resultado el incremento del número de especies con ámbitos relativamente reducidos, los cuales son potencialmente vulnerables a las concentraciones localizadas de colonización humana. Tendencias recientes indican que la verdadera diversidad de los marmosets amazónicos (posiblemente incluyendo Cebuella y Callimico) es todavía desconocida, e investigación adicional es necesaria antes de que estrategias de conservación puedan ser planificadas efectivamente. Principalmente, más información sobre las caracteristicas biológicas, ecológicas, y genéticas de todas las especies serán requeridas con el fin de garantizar su conservación a largo plazo.

Resumo

Os saguis e Callimico formam um grupo diverso de primatas, distribuído ao longo de praticamente toda a América do Sul, a sul do Rio Amazonas e a leste dos Andes. Com exceção de três espécies, todas são endêmicas do Brasil. Devido ao seu tamanho reduzido e flexibilidade ecológica, estes primatas são relativamente resistentes aos efeitos de fragmentação de habitat, embora as distribuições geográficas pequenas de algumas espécies as tornam vulneráveis à perda de habitat, que é típica da Mata Atlântica. De acordo com isto, duas espécies da Mata Atlântica (Callithrix aurita e Callithrix flaviceps) já são consideradas ameaçadas de extinção, e as demais espécies endêmicas parecem estar relativamente vulneráveis. A consolidação do habitat remanescente, e o manejo de metapopulações são a prioridade maior neste bioma. Na Amazônia, por outro lado, o desmatamento ainda é uma ameaça distante para a maioria das espécies, mas as recentes descobertas têm resultado em um número cada vez maior de espécies com distribuições geográficas relativamente reduzidas, que são potencialmente vulneráveis a concentrações de colonização humana. As tendências recentes indicam que a diversidade verdadeira dos sagüis amazônicos (incluindo, possivelmente, Cebuella e Callimico) ainda é desconhecida, e que serão necessárias mais pesquisas para o planejamento efetivo de estratégias de conservação. De um modo geral, mais dados sobre as características biológicas, ecológicas e genéticas de todas as espécies serão imprescindíveis para garantir sua conservação a longo prazo.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Lesa Davis, Susan Ford, and Leila Porter for inviting this contribution. He also acknowledges Leila Porter for information on Callimico, and CNPq for supporting his research on marmosets through stipend no. 307506/20037.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversidade Federal de SergipeSão CristóvãoBrazil

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