Advertisement

Studying the Crime Problem with NIBRS Data: Current Uses and Future Trends

  • Lynn A. Addington
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Since 1930, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) through its national Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) has collected mainly aggregate counts of crime from state and local law enforcement agencies. This focus limits the official crime data available for analysis and policy making because, with the exception of homicides, characteristics of specific incidents are unknown. Information such as crime location, use of weapons, type of property stolen as well as victim and offender demographics provides a more complete picture of crime and crime patterns. Such details enable assessment of both current policies aimed to reduce crime and posited theories generated to explain it. Prompted by more sophisticated studies and understandings of crime as well as improved technological capabilities to capture and transmit incident information, the FBI instituted fundamental changes in the late 1980 s for how the UCR would collect crime data (FBI, 2004). Currently the UCR is in the midst of undergoing this substantial conversion from its traditional summary-based system (the summary reporting system) to its new incident-based one, the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).

Keywords

Hate Crime Uniform Crime Reporting Crime Data National Crime Victimization Survey Criminal Incident 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Addington, L. A. (2006). Using NIBRS murder data to evaluate clearance predictors: A research note. Homicide Studies, 10, 140–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Addington, L. A. (2007a). Using NIBRS to study methodological sources of divergence between the UCR and NCVS. In J. P. Lynch & L. A. Addington (Eds.), Understanding crime statistics: Revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and the UCR (pp. 225–250). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Addington, L. A. (2007b). Hot vs. cold cases: Examining time to clearance for homicides using NIBRS data. Justice Research and Policy, 9, 87–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24, 32–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Addington, L. A., & Rennison, C. M. (2008). Co-occurring rape: Do additional crimes affect how victims and police respond to rape? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24, 205–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnett-Ryan, C. (2007). Introduction to the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. In J. P. Lynch & L. A. Addington (Eds.), Understanding crime statistics: Revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and the UCR (pp. 55–89). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barnett-Ryan, C., & Swanson, G. (2008). The role of state programs in NIBRS data quality: A case study of two states. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24, 18–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bibel, D. (2000). Statewide crime analysis and mapping: An on-going project. Crime Mapping News, 2, 1–4.Google Scholar
  10. Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (1991). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1994). Demonstrating the operational utility of incident-based data for local crime analysis: Reporting systems in Tacoma, WA and New Bedford, MA. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  12. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1997). Implementing the National Incident-Based Reporting System: A project status report. Retrieved December 18, 2002, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/inibrs.pdf.
  13. Burek, M. W. (2006). AFDC to TANF: The effects of welfare reform on instrumental and expressive crimes. Criminal Justice Studies, 19, 241–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chilton, R. (2004). Regional variations in lethal and nonlethal assaults. Homicide Studies, 8, 40–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chilton, R., & Jarvis, J. (1999). Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) to test estimates of arrestee and offender characteristics. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15, 207–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chilton, R., & Regoeczi, W. C. (2007). Impact of employment, family structure, and income on NIBRS offense, victim, offender, and arrest rates. Justice Research and Policy, 9, 9–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chu, L. D., & Kraus, J. F. (2004). Predicting fatal assault among the elderly using the National Incident-Based Reporting System crime data. Homicide Studies, 8, 71–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunn, C. S., & Zelenock, T. J. (1999). NIBRS data available for secondary analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15, 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eitle, D. (2005). The influence of mandatory arrest policies, police organizational characteristics, and situational variables on the probability of arrest in domestic violence cases. Crime & Delinquency, 51, 573–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eitle, D., Stolzenberg, L., & D’Alessio, S. J. (2005). Police organizational factors, the racial composition of police, and the probability of arrest. Justice Quarterly, 22, 30–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1992). Uniform crime reporting handbook, National Incident-Based Reporting System edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  22. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2000). National Incident-Based Reporting System: Vol. 1. Data collection guidelines. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Available from http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/nibrs/manuals/v1all.pdf.Google Scholar
  23. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2004). Uniform crime reporting handbook. Available online at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/handbook/ucrhandbook04.pdf.
  24. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Crime in the United States. Available online at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2006/index.html.
  25. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS): General information. Retrieved May 25, 2008 from http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/faqs.htm.
  26. Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2000). Juvenile victims of property crime. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/jjbul2000_12_2/contents.html.Google Scholar
  27. Haas, S. M., Jarvis, J. P., Jefferis, E., & Turley, E. (2007). Gun availability and crime in West Virginia: An examination of NIBRS data. Justice Research and Policy, 9, 139–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Justice Research and Statistics Association. (n.d. a). Status of NIBRS in the States. Retrieved April 8, 2008, from the IBR Resource Center at http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/nibrs_states.shtml.
  29. Justice Research and Statistics Association. (n.d. b). 50 largest NIBRS agencies. Retrieved April 8, 2008, from the IBR Resource Center at http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/index.html.
  30. Koons-Witt, B. A., & Schram, P. J. (2003). The prevalence and nature of violent offending by females. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 361–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lauritsen, J. L., & Schaum, R. J. (2005). Crime and victimization in the three largest metropolitan areas, 1980–98. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice. Available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/cv3lma98.pdf.Google Scholar
  32. Lynch, J. P., & Addington, L. A. (2007). Conclusion. In J. P. Lynch & L. A. Addington (Eds.), Understanding crime statistics: Revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and the UCR (pp. 297–334). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Maltz, M. D. (1999). Bridging gaps in police crime data: A discussion paper from the BJS Fellows Program. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  34. Maxfield, M. G., & Maltz, M. D. (1999). Editors’ introduction: Special issue on the National Incident-Based Reporting System. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15, 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Messner, S. F., McHugh, S., & Felson, R. B. (2004). Distinctive characteristics of assaults motivated by bias. Criminology, 42, 585–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (2007). Law enforcement agency identifiers crosswalk, 2005 [Codebook]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.Google Scholar
  37. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2008). Easy access to NIBRS: Victims of domestic violence, 2005. Retrieved May 25, 2008 from http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/ezanibrsdv/.
  38. Pattavina, A., Buzawa, E., Hirschel, D., & Faggiani, D. (2007). Policy, place and perpetrators: Using NIBRS to explain arrest practices in intimate partner violence. Justice Research and Policy, 9, 31–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pattavina, A., Hirschel, D., & Buzawa, E. (2007). A comparison of the police responses to heterosexual versus same-sex intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 13, 374–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Poggio, E. C., Kennedy, S. D., Chaiken, J. M., & Carlson, K. E. (1985). Blueprint for the future of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program: Final report of the UCR study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  41. Reaves, B. A. (1993). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  42. Roberts, A. (2007). Predictors of homicide clearance by arrest: An event history analysis of NIBRS incidents. Homicide Studies, 11, 82–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Simon, L. M., & Zgoba, K. (2006). Sex crimes against children: Legislation, prevention and investigation. Crime Prevention Studies, 19, 65–100.Google Scholar
  44. Snyder, H. N. (1994). The criminal victimization of young children. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.Google Scholar
  45. Snyder, H. N. (1999). The overrepresentation of juvenile crime proportions in robbery clearance statistics. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15, 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stolzenberg, L., Eitle, D., & D’Alessio, S. J. (2006). Race, economic inequality, and violent crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 303–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Strom, K. J. (1999). State use of incident-based crime statistics. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice. Available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/suibcs98.pdf.Google Scholar
  48. Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (2002). Tennessee Incident Based Reporting System resource guide. Retrieved on May 19, 2008 at http://www.tbi.state.tn.us/Info%20Systems%20Div/TIBRS_unit/resource%20guide.pdf.
  49. U.S. Department of Justice (2006). Law enforcement management and administrative statistics (LEMAS): 2003 sample survey of law enforcement agencies [Codebook]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.Google Scholar
  50. Vandriver, D. M. (2006). Female sex offenders: A comparison of solo offenders and co-offenders. Violence and Victims, 21, 339–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Weaver, G. S., Clifford Wittekind, J. E., Huff-Corzine, L., Corzine, J., Petee, T. A., & Jarvis, J. P. (2004). Violent encounters: A criminal event analysis of lethal and nonlethal outcomes. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 20, 348–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynn A. Addington
    • 1
  1. 1.American UniversityWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations