Advertisement

The Flow and Ebb of American Capital Punishment

  • James R. Acker
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Capital punishment laws and practices have changed significantly since 1608, when the first recorded execution on American soil was carried out in colonial Jamestown (Harries & Cheatwood, 1997, p. 17). A dozen or more felonies were typically punished by death in the original 13 states, including counterfeiting, burglary, robbery, arson, and others (Bye, 1926, p. 234; Mackey, 1982, pp. 40–41). Death sentences followed automatically on conviction (Bedau, 1982, pp. 9–10). They were carried out publicly, with great fanfare and normally by hanging. Public executions were designed to impress citizens with the state’s power and authority and, accompanied by gallows sermons and often-repentant offenders, to reinforce civic values and the social order (Masur, 1989, pp. 25–49).

Keywords

Death Penalty Death Sentence Plurality Opinion Life Imprisonment Defense Counsel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abernethy, J. S. (1996.) The methodology of death: Reexamining the deterrence rationale. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 27, 379–428.Google Scholar
  2. Acker, J. R. (1996). When the cheering stopped: An overview and analysis of New York’s death penalty legislation. Pace Law Review, 17, 41–227.Google Scholar
  3. Acker, J. R. (2006). The myth of closure and capital punishment. In R. M. Bohm & J. T. Walker (Eds.), Demystifying crime and criminal justice (pp. 167–175). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  4. Acker, J. R. (2008). Scrutinizing the death penalty: State death penalty study commissions and their recommendations. In R. M. Bohm (Ed.), The death penalty today (pp. 29–59). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  5. Acker, J. R., & Lanier, C. S. (1999). Ready for the defense? Legislative provisions governing the appointment of counsel in capital cases. Criminal Law Bulletin, 35, 429–477.Google Scholar
  6. Acker, J. R., & Lanier, C. S. (2000). May God—or the Governor—have mercy: Executive clemency and executions in modern death-penalty systems. Criminal Law Bulletin, 36, 200–237.Google Scholar
  7. Acker, J. R., & Lanier, C. S. (2003). Beyond human ability? The rise and fall of death penalty legislation. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2d ed., pp. 85–125). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Armour, M. P., & Umbreit, M. S. (2007). The ultimate penal sanction and “closure” for survivors of homicide victims. Marquette Law Review, 91, 381–424.Google Scholar
  9. Atkins v. Virginia. (2002). 536 U.S. 304.Google Scholar
  10. Baldus, D. C., & Woodworth, G. G. (2004). Race discrimination and the legitimacy of capital punishment: Reflections on the interaction of fact and perception. DePaul Law Review, 53, 1411–1495.Google Scholar
  11. Baldus, D. C., Woodworth, G. G., & Pulaski, C. A., Jr. (1990). Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Baldus, D. C., Woodworth, G., Zuckerman, D., Weiner, N. A., & Broffitt, B. (2001). The use of peremptory challenges in capital murder trials: A legal and empirical analysis. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, 3, 3–170.Google Scholar
  13. Banner, S. (2002). The death penalty: An American history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Barefoot v. Estelle. (1983). 463 U.S. 880.Google Scholar
  15. Baze v. Rees. (2008). 128 S.Ct. 1520.Google Scholar
  16. Beccaria, C. (1764/1963). On crimes and punishments (Henry Paolucci, Trans.). Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  17. Bedau, H. A. (1982). The death penalty in America (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Berk, R. (2005). New claims about executions and general deterrence: Déjà vu all over again? Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 2, 303–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Berns, W. (1991). For capital punishment: Crime and the morality of the death penalty. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  20. Bessler, J. D. (1997). Death in the dark: Midnight executions in America. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Blecker, R. (2003). Roots. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 169–231). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Blecker, R. (2007). But did they listen? The New Jersey Death Penalty Commission’s exercise in abolitionism. Rutgers Journal of Law & Public Policy, 5, 9–85.Google Scholar
  23. Blume, J. H., Garvey, S. P., & Johnson, S. L. (2001). Future dangerousness in capital cases: Always “at issue.” Cornell Law Review, 86, 397–410.Google Scholar
  24. Blume, J. H., Johnson, S. L., & Threlkeld, A. B. (2001). Probing “life qualification” through expanded voir dire. Hofstra Law Review, 29, 1209–1264.Google Scholar
  25. Bohm, R. M. (2003a). The economic costs of capital punishment: Past, present, and future. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 573–594). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Bohm, R. M. (2003b). American death penalty opinion: Past, present, and future. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 27–54). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Bowers, W. J. (1984). Legal homicide: Death as punishment in America, 1864–1982. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Bowers, W. J., Fleury-Steiner, B. D., & Antonio, M. E. (2003). The capital sentencing decision: Guided discretion, reasoned moral judgment, or legal fiction. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 413–467). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Bowers, W. J., Sandys, M. & Brewer, T. W. (2004). Cross racial boundaries: A closer look at the roots of racial bias in capital sentencing when the defendant is black and the victim is white. DePaul Law Review, 53, 1497–1537.Google Scholar
  30. Bowers, W. J., & Steiner, B. D. (1999). Death by default: An empirical demonstration of false and forced choices in capital sentencing. Texas Law Review, 77, 605–717.Google Scholar
  31. Bowers, W. J., Steiner, B. D., & Sandys, M. (2001). Death sentencing in black and white: An empirical analysis of the role of jurors’ race and jury racial composition. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, 3, 171–274.Google Scholar
  32. Bright, S. B. (1994). Counsel for the poor: The death sentence not for the worst crime but for the worst lawyer. Yale Law Journal, 103, 1835–1883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brock, D., Cohen, N. & Sorensen, J. (2000). Arbitrariness in the imposition of death sentences in Texas: An analysis of four counties by offense seriousness, race of victim, and race of offender. American Journal of Criminal Law, 28, 43–71.Google Scholar
  34. Burnett, C. (2002). Justice denied: Clemency appeals in death penalty cases. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Bye, R. T. (1926). Recent history and present status of capital punishment in the United States. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 17, 234–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Camus, A. (1960). Reflections on the guillotine (J. O’Brien, Trans.). In Resistance, rebellion, and death (pp. 131–179). New York: Modern Library.Google Scholar
  37. Cloninger, D. O., & Marchesini, R. (2001). Execution and deterrence: A quasi-controlled group experiment. Applied Economics, 33, 569–576.Google Scholar
  38. Coker v. Georgia. (1977). 433 U.S. 584.Google Scholar
  39. Cook, P. J., Slawson, D. B., & Gries, L. A. (1993). The costs of processing murder cases in North Carolina. Durham, NC: Terry Sandford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University. Available at http://www.thejusticeproject.org/press/reports/pdfs/21740.pdf. Website consulted March 13, 2008.Google Scholar
  40. Cunningham, M. D., Reidy, T. J., & Sorensen, J. R. (2005). Is death row obsolete? A decade of mainstreaming death-sentenced inmates in Missouri. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 23, 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cushing, R. R., & Shaffer, S. (2002). Dignity denied: The experience of murder victims’ family members who oppose the death penalty. Cambridge, MA: Murder Victims’ Families for Reconciliation.Google Scholar
  42. Cutler, C. Q. (2002–2003). Nothing less than the dignity of man: Evolving standards, botched executions and Utah’s controversial use of the firing squad. Cleveland State Law Review, 50, 335–424.Google Scholar
  43. Death Penalty Information Center. (2008a). Facts about the death penalty. Available at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/FactSheet.pdf. Web site consulted March 13, 2008.
  44. Death Penalty Information Center. (2008b). Executions by year. Available at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?scid=8&did=146. Web site consulted March 11, 2008.
  45. Death Penalty Information Center. (2008c). Life without parole. Available at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?did=555&scid=59. Web site consulted March 13, 2008.
  46. Death Penalty Information Center. (2008d). Innocence: List of those freed from death row. Available at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?scid=6&did=110. Web site consulted March 21, 2008.
  47. Death Penalty Information Center. (2008e). Clemency. Available at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?did=126&scid=13. Web site consulted March 22, 2008.
  48. Death Penalty Information Center. (2008f). Death sentences by year: 1977–2007. Available at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?scid=9&did=873. Web site consulted April 6, 2008.
  49. Death Penalty Information Center. (2008 g). The death penalty: An international perspective. Available at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?did=127&scid=30#interexec. Web site consulted April 6, 2008.
  50. Denno, D. W. (1994). Is electrocution an unconstitutional method of execution? The engineering of death over the century. William and Mary Law Review, 35, 551–692.Google Scholar
  51. Denno, D. W. (2007). The lethal injection quandary: How medicine has dismantled the death penalty. Fordham Law Review, 76, 49–128.Google Scholar
  52. Dezhbakhsh, H., & Shepherd, J. M. (2006). The deterrent effect of capital punishment: Evidence from a “judicial experiment.” Economic Inquiry, 44, 512–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dieter, R. C. (2007). Costs of the death penalty and related issues: Testimony of Richard C. Dieter, House Bill 1094. Judiciary Committee, Colorado House of Representatives. Denver, CO. Feb. 7. Available at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/COcosttestimony.pdf. Web site consulted March 13, 2008.
  54. Ditchfield, A. (2007). Challenging the intrastate disparities in the application of capital punishment statutes. Georgetown Law Journal, 95, 801–830.Google Scholar
  55. Douglas, D. M. (2000). God and the executioner: The influence of Western religion on the death penalty. William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 9, 137–170.Google Scholar
  56. Dressler, J. (2005). The wisdom and morality of present-day criminal sentencing. Akron Law Review, 38, 853–866.Google Scholar
  57. Ellsworth, P. C., & Gross. S. R. (1994). Hardening of the attitudes: Americans’ views on the death penalty. Journal of Social Issues, 50(2), 19–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Enmund v. Florida. (1982). 458 U.S. 782.Google Scholar
  59. Fagan, J. (2006). Death and deterrence redux: Science, law and capital punishment. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 4, 255–321.Google Scholar
  60. Fagan, J., Zimring, F. E., & Geller, A. (2006). Capital punishment and capital murder: Market share and the deterrent effects of the death penalty. Texas Law Review, 84, 1803–1867.Google Scholar
  61. Feuer, A. (2008). An aversion to the death penalty, but no shortage of cases. New York Times. B1. March 10.Google Scholar
  62. Fleischaker, D. (2007). ABA state death penalty assessments: Facts (un)discovered, progress (to be) made, and lessons learned. Human Rights, 34(2), 10–12.Google Scholar
  63. Furman v. Georgia. (1972). 408 U.S. 238.Google Scholar
  64. Garey, M. (1985). The cost of taking a life: Dollars and sense of the death penalty. University of California at Davis Law Review, 18, 1221–1273.Google Scholar
  65. Gerber, R. J. (2004a). Economic and historical implications for capital punishment deterrence. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy, 18, 437–450.Google Scholar
  66. Gerber, R. J. (2004b). Survival mechanisms: How America keeps the death penalty alive. Stanford Law and Policy Review, 15, 363–379.Google Scholar
  67. Governor’s Commission on Capital Punishment. (2002). Report of the Governor’s Commission on Capital Punishment. Springfield, IL: State of Illinois. Available at http://www.idoc.state.il.us/ccp/ccp/reports/commission_report/index.html. Web site consulted March 21, 2008.Google Scholar
  68. Gregg v. Georgia. (1976). 428 U.S. 153.Google Scholar
  69. Gross, S. R., & Matheson, D. J. (2003). What they saw at the end: Capital victims’ families and the press. Cornell Law Review, 88, 486–516.Google Scholar
  70. Haney, C. (1984). On the selection of capital juries: The biasing effects of the death-qualification process. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Haney, C. (2005). Death by design: Capital punishment as a social psychological system. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Harding, R. M. (1996). The gallows to the gurney: Analyzing the (un)constitutionality of the methods of execution. Boston University Public Interest Law Journal, 6, 153–176.Google Scholar
  73. Harries, K., & Cheatwood, D. (1997). The geography of execution: The capital punishment quagmire in America. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  74. Hartung, F. E. (1952). Trends in the use of capital punishment. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 284, 8–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hoffmann, J. L. (2005). Protecting the innocent: The Massachusetts Governor’s Council Report. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 95, 561–585.Google Scholar
  76. Jacobi, J. S. (2007). Mostly harmless: An analysis of post-AEDPA federal habeas corpus review of state harmless error determinations. Michigan Law Review, 105, 805–836.Google Scholar
  77. Jurek v. Texas. (1976). 428 U.S. 262.Google Scholar
  78. Kahan, D. M., & Nussbaum, M. C. (1996). Two conceptions of emotion in criminal law. Columbia Law Review, 96, 269–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kansas v. Marsh. (2006). 126 S.Ct. 2516.Google Scholar
  80. Kennedy v. Louisiana. (2008). ___ U.S. ___, 2008 WL 2511282.Google Scholar
  81. Kennedy, R. (1997). Race, crime, and the law. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  82. Kimble, M. (2006). My journey and the riddle. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 127–138). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  83. King, N. J., Cheesman, F. L., II, & Ostrom, B. J. (2007). Final technical report: Habeas litigation in U.S. District Courts—An empirical study of habeas corpus cases filed by state prisoners under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. Available at http://www.law.vanderbilt.edu/article-search/article-detail/download.aspx?id=1639. Web site consulted March 22, 2008.
  84. King, R. (2003). Don’t kill in our names: Families of murder victims speak out against the death penalty. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Kirchmeier, J. L. (2002). Another place beyond here: The death penalty moratorium movement in the United States. Colorado Law Review, 73, 1–116.Google Scholar
  86. Kittner, G. (2006). Voters support death penalty. Wisconsin State Journal (Nov. 8). Available on Lexis/Nexis Academic.Google Scholar
  87. Klein, L. R., Forst, B., & Filatov, V. (1978). The deterrent effect of capital punishment: An assessment of the estimates. In A. Blumstein, J. Cohen, & D. Nagin (Eds.), Deterrence and incapacitation: Estimating the effects of criminal sanctions on crime rates (pp. 336–360). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  88. Kovarsky, L. (2007). AEDPA’s wrecks: Comity, finality, and federalism. Tulane Law Review, 82, 443–507.Google Scholar
  89. Lanier, C. S., & Acker, J. R. (2004). Capital punishment, the moratorium movement, and empirical questions: Looking beyond innocence, race, and bad lawyering in death penalty cases. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 10, 577–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Liebman, J. S., Fagan, J., & West, V. (2000). A broken system: Error rates in capital cases, 1973–1995. Available at http://www2.law.columbia.edu/instructionalservices/liebman/. Web site consulted March 13, 2008.
  91. Lockhart v. McCree. (1986). 476 U.S. 162.Google Scholar
  92. Mackey, P. E. (1982). Hanging in the balance: The anti-capital punishment movement in New York State, 1776–1861. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  93. Madow, M. (1995). Forbidden spectacle: Executions, the public and the press in nineteenth century New York. Buffalo Law Review, 43, 461–562.Google Scholar
  94. Markman, S. J., & Cassell, P. G. (1988). Protecting the innocent: A response to the Bedau-Radelet study. Stanford Law Review, 41, 121–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Marquis, J. (2005). The myth of innocence. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 95, 501–521.Google Scholar
  96. Masur, L. P. (1989). Rites of execution: Capital punishment and the transformation of American culture, 1776–1865. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  97. McCleskey v. Kemp. (1987). 481 U.S. 279.Google Scholar
  98. McGautha v. California. (1971). 402 U.S. 183.Google Scholar
  99. Meltsner, M. (1973). Cruel and unusual: The Supreme Court and capital punishment. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  100. Miller-El v. Dretke. (2005). 545 U.S. 231.Google Scholar
  101. Morgan v. Illinois. (1992). 504 U.S. 719.Google Scholar
  102. New Jersey Death Penalty Study Commission. (2007). New Jersey Death Penalty Study Commission report. Trenton, NJ: State of New Jersey. Available at http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/committees/dpsc_final.pdf. Website consulted March 13, 2008.Google Scholar
  103. Note. (2006). A matter of life and death: The effect of life-without-parole statutes on capital punishment. Harvard Law Review, 119, 1838–1854.Google Scholar
  104. Pastore, A. L., & Maguire, K. (Eds.) (2003). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics [Online]. Available at http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/. Website consulted March 18, 2008.
  105. Paternoster, R., Brame, R., Bacon, S., Ditchfield, A., Biere, D., Beckman, K., et al. (2003). An empirical analysis of Maryland’s death sentencing system with respect to the influence of race and legal jurisdiction: Final report. College Park, MD: University of Maryland. Available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/pdf.finalrep.pdf. Website consulted March 19, 2008.Google Scholar
  106. Peterson, R. D., & Bailey, W. C. (2003). Is capital punishment an effective deterrent for murder? An examination of social science research. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 251–282). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  107. Pogarsky, G. (2002). Identifying “deterrable” offenders: Implications for research on deterrence. Justice Quarterly, 19, 431–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Proctor, G. (2006–2007). Reevaluating capital punishment: The fallacy of a foolproof system, the focus on reform, and the international factor. Gonzaga Law Review, 42, 211–255.Google Scholar
  109. Proffitt v. Florida. (1976). 428 U.S. 242.Google Scholar
  110. Radelet M. L., & Akers, R. L. (1996). Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 87, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Radelet, M. L., & Borg, M. J. (2000). The changing nature of death penalty debates. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Radelet, M. L., & Stanley, D. (2006). Learning from homicide co-victims: A university-based project. In J. R. Acker & D. R. Karp (Eds.), Wounds that do not bind: Victim-based perspectives on the death penalty (pp. 397–409). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  113. Ring v. Arizona. (2002). 536 U.S. 584.Google Scholar
  114. Roberts v. Louisiana. (1976). 428 U.S. 325.Google Scholar
  115. Rompilla v. Beard. (2005). 545 U.S. 374.Google Scholar
  116. Roper v. Simmons. (2005). 543 U.S. 551.Google Scholar
  117. Roper, S. (2006). Finding hope: One family’s journey. In J. R. Acker & D. R. Karp (Eds.), Wounds that do not bind: Victim-based perspectives on the death penalty (pp. 111–125). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  118. Rosenbluth, S., & Rosenbluth, P. (2006). Accidental death is fate, murder is pure evil. In J. R. Acker & D. R. Karp (Eds.), Wounds that do not bind: Victim-based perspectives on the death penalty (pp. 103–109). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  119. Rothman, D. J. (1971). The discovery of the asylum: Social order and disorder in the new republic. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.Google Scholar
  120. Sandys, M., & McClelland, S. (2003). Stacking the deck for guilt and death: The failure of death qualification to ensure impartiality. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 385–411). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  121. Sarat, A. (2001). When the state kills: Capital punishment and the American condition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Sarat, A. (2008). Memorializing miscarriages of justice: Clemency petitions in the killing state. Law and Society Review, 42, 183–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shepherd, J. M. (2005). Deterrence versus brutalization: Capital punishment’s differing impacts among states. Michigan Law Review, 104, 203–249.Google Scholar
  124. Snell, T. (2006) Capital punishment, 2005. (2005). Washington DC: United States Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  125. Songer, M. J., & Unah, I. (2006). The effect of race, gender, and location on prosecutorial decisions to seek the death penalty in South Carolina. South Carolina Law Review, 58, 161–209.Google Scholar
  126. Sorensen, J., & Marquart, J. (2003). Future dangerousness and incapacitation. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 283–300). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  127. Sorensen, J. R., & Pilgrim, R. L. (2000). An actuarial risk assessment of violence posed by capital murder defendants. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 90, 1251–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Steiker, C. S., & Steiker, J. M. (1992). Let God sort them out? Refining the individualization requirement in capital sentencing. [Review of the book, Crossed over: A murder, a memoir]. Yale Law Journal, 102, 835–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Steiker, C. S., & Steiker, J. M. (2003). Judicial developments in capital punishment law. In J. R. Acker, R. M. Bohm, & C. S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (2nd ed., pp. 55–83). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  130. Stephen, J. F. (1863). A general view of the criminal law of England. London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  131. Sundby, S. E. (2006). The death penalty’s future: Charting the crosscurrents of declining death sentences and the McVeigh factor. Texas Law Review, 84, 1929–1972.Google Scholar
  132. Thompson, W. C., Cowan, C. L., Ellsworth, P. C., & Harrington, J. C. (1984). Death penalty attitudes and conviction proneness: The translation of attitudes into verdicts. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 93–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tilghman, A. (2003). Costly price of capital punishment: Restoration of the death penalty in New York State has cost $160 million as wheels of justice turn slowly. Albany Times Union, A1, Sept. 21.Google Scholar
  134. United States v. Quinones. (2002). 205 F.Supp.2d 256 (S.D.N.Y.), rev’d, 313 F.3d 49 (2d. Cir. 2002), reh. den., 317 F.3d 86 (2d Cir. 2003), cert. den., 540 U.S. 1051 (2003).Google Scholar
  135. United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2007). Capital punishment, 2006—Statistical tables. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/cp/2006/cp06st.pdf. Web site consulted April 6, 2008.Google Scholar
  136. United States General Accounting Office. (1990). Death penalty sentencing: Resource indicates pattern of racial disparities. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.Google Scholar
  137. Van den Haag, E. (1978). In defense of the death penalty: A legal-practical-moral analysis. Criminal Law Bulletin, 14, 51–68.Google Scholar
  138. Van den Haag, E., & Conrad, J. P. (1983). The death penalty: A debate. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  139. Vandiver, M. (1993). The quality of mercy: Race and clemency in Florida death penalty cases, 1924–1966. University of Richmond Law Review, 27, 315–343.Google Scholar
  140. Vandiver, M. (2006a). The death penalty and the families of victims: An overview of research issues. In J. R. Acker & D. R. Karp (Eds.), Wounds that do not bind: Victim-based perspectives on the death penalty (pp. 235–252). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  141. Vandiver, M. (2006b). Lethal punishment: Lynchings and legal executions in the South. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Wagner, S. (2006). The death sentence: For criminals or victims? In J. R. Acker & D. R. Karp (Eds.), Wounds that do not bind: Victim-based perspectives on the death penalty (pp. 69–83). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  143. Wainwright v. Witt. (1985). 469 U.S. 412.Google Scholar
  144. Warden, Rob. (2005). Illinois death penalty reform: How it happened, what it promises. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 95, 381–426.Google Scholar
  145. Welch, B. (2002). Speaking out against the execution of Timothy McVeigh. In D. R. Dow, & M. Dow (Eds.). Machinery of death: The reality of America’s death penalty regime (pp. 275–281). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  146. Wiggins v. Smith. (2003). 539 U.S. 510.Google Scholar
  147. Williams, K. (2005). Ensuring the capital defendant’s right to competent counsel: It’s time for some standards! Wayne Law Review, 51, 129–161.Google Scholar
  148. Winick, B. J. (1982). Prosecutorial peremptory challenge practices in capital cases: An empirical study and a constitutional analysis. Michigan Law Review, 81, 1–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Woodson v. North Carolina. (1976). 428 U.S. 280.Google Scholar
  150. Zimring, F. E. (2003). The contradictions of American capital punishment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  151. Zimring, F. E., & Hawkins, G. (1986). Capital punishment and the American agenda. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  152. Zuanich, B. (2006). Good intentions are not enough: The argument against a higher standard of proof in capital cases. Suffolk Journal of Trial and Appellate Advocacy, 11, 221–241.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Acker
    • 1
  1. 1.University at Albany, SUNYAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations