Low Molecular Mass Permeation Enhancers in Oral Delivery of Macromolecular Drugs

  • Andreas Bernkop-SchnürchEmail author


Within the last decades strong evidence has been provided on the potential of various types of low molecular mass permeation enhancers to improve the oral uptake of macromolecular drugs. Although a considerable number of low molecular mass permeation enhancers have been developed, medium-chain fatty acids can still be regarded as gold standard. The development of more potent and less toxic low molecular mass permeation enhancers is therefore highly on demand. Moreover, drug delivery systems providing synchronized release properties of both drug and permeation enhancer and additional favourable features such as protective and mucoadhesive properties contribute to an improved oral drug uptake. Having the great potential of low molecular mass permeation enhancers in mind and taking all the opportunities ahead into consideration, this class of permeation enhancers will certainly further alter the landscape of drug delivery towards more efficient therapeutic systems.


Tight Junction Bile Salt Oral Bioavailability Mixed Micelle Glycyrrhetinic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Pharmacy, University of InnsbruckAustria

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