Advertisement

The Potential of Biofumigants as Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for the Control of Pest Infestation in Grain and Dry Food Products

  • Eli Shaaya
  • Moshe Kostyukovsky
Chapter

Abstract

Fumigation is still one of the most effective methods for the protection of stored grain and dry food from insect infestations. Phosphine and methyl bromide are the most widely used fumigants for the control of stored-product insects. Phosphine is mainly used today, but there are repeated reports that a number of storage pests have developed resistance to this fumigant. Methyl bromide has been identified as a contributor to ozone depletion by the United Nations World Meteorological Organization in 1995 and, thus, was phased out in most developed countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives with the potential to replace these fumigants.

The primary aims of the current study are to evaluate the potential use of essential oils obtained from aromatic plants as insect fumigants and to evaluate the toxicity of the known isothiocyanates (ITCs) as compared to a new ITC isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket) as fumigants for the control of stored-product insects. Also, the biological activity of carbon disulphide (CS2), methyl iodide (CH3I), and benzaldehyde (C7H6O) is evaluated.

The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults, larvae, and pupae of six major stored-product insects. Two essential oils isolated from Lamiaceae plants were found to be the most potent fumigants as compared with a large number of other essential oils. ITCs are also potential candidates, especially methylthio-butyl isothiocyanate, the main bioactive component in E. sativa, because of its low toxicity. Comparative studies with CH3I, CS2, and C7H6O showed that CH3I was the most active compound against stored-product insects, followed by CS2 and C7H6O. CH3I was also found to be less sorptive and less penetrative in wheat than CS2.

Keywords

Aromatic Plant Methyl Bromide Carbon Disulphide Pest Infestation Possible Human Carcinogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Asada, T., Ishimoto, T., Sakai, A., Sumiya, K. 1989. Insecticidal and antifungal activity in hinoki-asunaro leaf oil. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 35(9): 851–855.Google Scholar
  2. Brielmann, Jr. H.L., Setzer, W.N., Kaufman, P.B., Kirakosyan, A., Cseke, L.J. 2006. Phytochemicals: The Chemical Components of Plants. In: Cseke, Kirakosyan, Kaufman, Warber, Duke and Brielmann (eds.). Chapter 1 “Natural Products From Plants” Second Edition, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group: Boca Raton, FL, pp. 1–51.Google Scholar
  3. Champ, B., Dyte, C. 1976. Report of the FAO global survey of pesticide susceptibility of stored grain pests. FAO Plant Prod. Prot. Series no 5, Rome, 297pp.Google Scholar
  4. Deshpande, R.S., Adhikary, P.R., Tipnis, H.P. 1974. Stored grain pest control agents from Nigella sativa and Pogostemon heyneanus. Bull. Grain Tech. 12(3): 232–234.Google Scholar
  5. Deshpande, R.S, Tipnis, H.P. 1977. Insecticidal activity of Ocimum basilicum Linn. Pesticides 11(5): 11–12.Google Scholar
  6. Ducom, V. 1994. Methyl isothiocyanate as a grain fumigant. In: Highley E, Wright E.J., Banks H.J., Champ B.R., (eds.). Proc. 6th Intern. Work. Conf. Stored Prod. Prot. Wallingford, UK: CABI. pp. 91–97.Google Scholar
  7. Fenwick, G., Heaney, R., Mullin, W. 1983. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 18 (2): 123–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hassalani, A., Lwande, W. 1989. Anti pest secondary metabolites from African plants. In: Arnason J.T., Philogene B.J.R., Morand P. (eds.). Insecticides of plant origin. American Chem. Soc. Symp. series 387: 78–94.Google Scholar
  9. Jermy, T., Butt, B.A., McDonough, L., Dreyer, D.L., Rose A. F. 1981. Antifeedants for theColorado potato beetle. I. Antifeeding constituents of some plants from the sagebrush community. Insect Sci. Appl. 1 (3): 237–242.Google Scholar
  10. Jilani, G., Saxena, R.C., Rueda, B.P. 1988. Repellent and growth inhibiting effects of turmeric oil, sweetflag oil, neem oil and Margosan-O on red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 1226–1230.Google Scholar
  11. Kalemba, D., Kurowska, A., Gora, J., Lis, A. 1991. Analysis of essential oils: influence of insects. Part V. Essential oils of the berries of Juniper (Juniperus communis L.). Pestycydy 2: 31–34.Google Scholar
  12. Klingauf, F., Bestmann, H.J., Vostrowsky, O., Michaelis, K. 1983. Wirkung von altherishcen Olen auf Schadinsekten. Mitteilung Deutshe Gesselschaft fuer Allgem. Angew. Entom. 4:123–126.Google Scholar
  13. Kostyukovsky, M., Rafaeli, A., Gileadi, C., Demchenko, N., Shaaya, E. 2002. Activation of octopaminergic receptors by essential oil constituents isolated from aromatic plants: possible mode of activity against insect pests. Pest Manag. Sci. 58: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Koul, O., Smirle, M.J., Isman, M.B. 1990. Asarones from Acorus calamus oil: their effect on feeding behavior and dietary utilization in Peridroma saucia. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 1911–1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee, H.S. 2004. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J. Agric. Food Chem. 52 (10): 2887–2889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leoni, O., Lori, R., Palmieri, S., Esposito, E., Menegatti, E., Cortesi, R., Nastruzzi, C. 1997. Myrosynase-generated isothiocyanate from glucosinolates: isolation, characterization and in vitro anti-proliferative studies. Bioorg. Medicin. Chem. 5 (9): 1799–1806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Matasyoh, L.G., Matasyoh, J.C., Wachira, F.N., Kinyua, M.G., Muigai, A.T.M., Mukiama, T.K. 2007. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in eastern Kenya. African J. Biotechnol. 6 (6): 760–765.Google Scholar
  18. Mueller, D. 1998. Stored product protection, a period of transition. In: Mueller D. (ed.). Insects Limited Inc. Indiana, USA. 345pp.Google Scholar
  19. Mumcuoglu, K.Y., Galun, R., Bac, U., Miller, J., Magdassi, S. 1996. Repellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pedicullus humanus. Entomol. Experim. Appl. 78: 309–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mwangi, J.W., Addae-Mensah, I., Muriuki, G., Munavu, R., Lwande, W., Hassanali, A. 1992. Essential oils of Lippia species in Kenya. IV: Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) repellency and larvicidal activity. Intern. J. Pharmacognosy 30: 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nakakita, H., Winks, R.G. 1981. Phosphine resistance in immature stages of a laboratory selected strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.). J. Stored Prod. Res. 17: 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oka, Y., Nacar, S., Putievsky, E., Ravid, U., Yaniv, Z., Spiegel, Y. 2000. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their constituents against the root-knot nematode. Phytopathology 90(7): 710–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Polachek, K., Calderon, M., Shaaya, E. 1960. A method for increasing the penetration of grain fumigant (Calandrex). Hasadeh 40:1–3 (In Hebrew).Google Scholar
  24. Raja, N., Albert, S., Ignacimuthu, S., Dorn, S. 2001. Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation. J. Stored Prod. Res. 37: 127–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rajendran, S., Karanth, N. 2000. Indian Phosphine resistance studies reviewed. Phosphine Action News. Nigeria. October: 22–23.Google Scholar
  26. Regnault-Roger, C., Hamraoui, A. 1995. Fumigant toxic activity and reproductive inhibition induced by monoterpenes upon A. obtectus Say (Coleoptera), bruchid of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). J. Stored Prod. Res. 31: 291–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schuhmacher, A., Reichling, J., Schnitzler, P. 2003. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine 10(6/7): 504–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shaaya E. and Desmarchelier, J.M. (1995). Analysis, sorption and residues of a homologous series of isothiocyanates on wheat. Pestic. Sci. 44: 249–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shaaya, E., Kostyukovsky, M. 2006. Essential oils: potency against stored product insects and mode of action. Stewart Postharvest Review [Online], Vol. 2, No. 4.Google Scholar
  30. Shaaya, E., Kostjukovsky, M., Eilberg, J., Sukprakan, C. 1997. Plant oils as fumigants and contact insecticides for the control of stored-product insects. J. Stored Prod. Res. 33: 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shaaya, E., Kostjukovsky, M., Ravid, U. 1994. Essential oils and their constituents as effective fumigants against stored-product insects. Israel Agrisearch 7: 133–139.Google Scholar
  32. Shaaya, E., Paster, N., Juven, B., Zisman, U., Pisarev, V. 1991. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored- product insects. J. Chem. Ecol. 17: 499–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shaaya, E., Kostjukovsky, M., Rafaeli, A. 2002. Phyto-chemicals for controlling insect pests. Abstract of paper presented at the Second-Israel-Japan Workshop: Ecologically sound new plant protection technologies. The Japan Israel Binational Committee for Plant Protection, Tokyo, Japan. Phytoparasitica 30: 2.Google Scholar
  34. Tyler, P.S., Taylor, R.W., Rees, D.P. 1983. Insect resistance to phosphine fumigation in food warehouses in Bangladesh. Intern. Pest Control 25: 10–13.Google Scholar
  35. Wilson, L., Shaaya, E. 1999. Natural plant extracts might sub for methyl bromide. Agric. res. 47: 14–15.Google Scholar
  36. Winburn, T.F. 1952. Fumigants and protectants for controlling insects in stored grain. Pest control 20: 9–11, 32, 42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceARO, the Volcani CenterBet Dagan 50250Israel

Personalised recommendations