Advertisement

Role of IL12 Family in Regulation of Antitumor Immune Response

  • Denada Dibra
  • Shulin Li
Chapter

Abstract

The efficacy of immune therapy is partially dependent upon the tumor microenvironment. This microenvironment could either promote or demote tumor growth. Cytokines, which are secreted either by tumor, immune, or stromal cells, are key players that govern the outcome of this microenvironment. One such cytokine family is interleukin (IL)12 and the members of this family include IL12, IL27, IL23, and IL35. In this review, the expression and function of these family members and the cognate receptors in tumor microenvironment and other tissues are summarized and discussed. Our review indicates that, although these heterodimeric cytokines share subunits p35, p40, p19, EBI3, and p28 among these family members, each of them have distinct function. The same gene may also play different function when the expression is localized in different tissues.

Keywords

Tumor Microenvironment Treg Cell IL12 Family Reduce Tumor Growth IL12 Family Member 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD) grant RO1CA120895 and NIH/NIBIB grant R21EB007208

References

  1. 1.
    Neeson, P., and Paterson, Y. (2006) Immunol Investig 35, 359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Trinchieri, G. (1995) Annu Rev Immunol 13, 251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brunda, M. J., Luistro, L., Rumennik, L., Wright, R. B., Dvorozniak, M., Aglione, A., Wigginton, J. M., Wiltrout, R. H., Hendrzak, J. A., and Palleroni, A. V. (1996) Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 38 Suppl, S16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brunda, M. J., Luistro, L., Warrier, R. R., Wright, R. B., Hubbard, B. R., Murphy, M., Wolf, S. F., and Gately, M. K. (1993) J Exp Med 178, 1223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rakhmilevich, A. L., Turner, J., Ford, M. J., McCabe, D., Sun, W. H., Sondel, P. M., Grota, K., and Yang, N. S. (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93, 6291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Car, B. D., Eng, V. M., Lipman, J. M., and Anderson, T. D. (1999) Toxicologic Pathol 27, 58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aggarwal, S., Ghilardi, N., Xie, M. H., de Sauvage, F. J., and Gurney, A. L. (2003) J Biol Chem 278, 1910CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Niedbala, W., Wei, X. Q., Cai, B., Hueber, A. J., Leung, B. P., McInnes, I. B., and Liew, F. Y. (2007) Eur J Immunol 37, 3021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oppmann, B., Lesley, R., Blom, B., Timans, J. C., Xu, Y., Hunte, B., Vega, F., Yu, N., Wang, J., Singh, K., Zonin, F., Vaisberg, E., Churakova, T., Liu, M., Gorman, D., Wagner, J., Zurawski, S., Liu, Y., Abrams, J. S., Moore, K. W., Rennick, D., de Waal-Malefyt, R., Hannum, C., Bazan, J. F., and Kastelein, R. A. (2000) Immunity 13, 715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alber, G., Al-Robaiy, S., Kleinschek, M., Knauer, J., Krumbholz, P., Richter, J., Schoeneberger, S., Schuetze, N., Schulz, S., Toepfer, K., Voigtlaender, R., Lehmann, J., and Mueller, U. (2006) Ernst Schering Res Found Workshop 107Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Becker, C., Wirtz, S., and Neurath, M. F. (2005) Inflamm Bowel Dis 11, 755CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gaddi, P. J. and Yap, G. S. (2007) Immunol Cell Biol 85, 155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goriely, S., Neurath, M. F., and Goldman, M. (2008) Nat Rev 8, 81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beadling, C., and Slifka, M. K. (2006) Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 54, 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pflanz, S., Timans, J. C., Cheung, J., Rosales, R., Kanzler, H., Gilbert, J., Hibbert, L., Churakova, T., Travis, M., Vaisberg, E., Blumenschein, W. M., Mattson, J. D., Wagner, J. L., To, W., Zurawski, S., McClanahan, T.K., Gorman, D.M., Bazan, J.F., de Waal Malefyt, R., Rennick, D., and Kastelein, R.A. (2002) Immunity 16, 779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Villarino, A. V., Huang, E., and Hunter, C. A. (2004) J Immunol 173, 715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wirtz, S., Becker, C., Fantini, M. C., Nieuwenhuis, E. E., Tubbe, I., Galle, P. R., Schild, H. J., Birkenbach, M., Blumberg, R. S., and Neurath, M. F. (2005) J Immunol 174, 2814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pflanz, S., Hibbert, L., Mattson, J., Rosales, R., Vaisberg, E., Bazan, J. F., Phillips, J. H., McClanahan, T. K., de Waal Malefyt, R., and Kastelein, R. A. (2004) J Immunol, 172, 2225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen, Q., Ghilardi, N., Wang, H., Baker, T., Xie, M. H., Gurney, A., Grewal, I. S., and de Sauvage, F. J. (2000) Nature 407, 916CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Langowski, J. L., Zhang, X., Wu, L., Mattson, J.D., Chen, T., Smith, K., Basham, B., McClanahan, T., Kastelein, R. A., and Oft, M. (2006) Nature 442, 461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li, S., Zhu, S., and Dibra, D. (2007) United States Patent Application 20070280905Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yoshimoto, T., Morishima, N., Mizoguchi, I., Shimizu, M., Nagai, H., Oniki, S., Oka, M., Nishigori, C., and Mizuguchi, J. (2008) J Immunol 180, 6527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pradhan, A., Lambert, Q. T., and Reuther, G. W. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, 18502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Niedobitek, G., Pazolt, D., Teichmann, M., and Devergne, O. (2002) J Pathol 198, 310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Larousserie, F., Bardel, E., L’Hermine, A.C., Canioni, D., Brousse, N., Kastelein, R., and Devergne, O. 2006, J Pathol 209, 360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Larousserie, F., Bardel, E., Pflanz, S., Arnulf, B., Lome-Maldonado, C., Hermine, O., Bregeaud, L., Perennec, M., Brousse, N., Kastelein, R., and Devergne, O. (2005) Am J Pathol 166, 1217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baxter, E. J., Scott, L. M., Campbell, P. J., East, C., Fourouclas, N., Swanton, S., Vassiliou, G. S., Bench, A. J., Boyd, E. M., Curtin, N., Scott, M. A., Erber, W. N., and Green, A. R. (2005) Lancet 365, 1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    James, C., Ugo, V., Le Couedic, J. P., Staerk, J., Delhommeau, F., Lacout, C., Garcon, L., Raslova, H., Berger, R., Bennaceur-Griscelli, A., Villeval, J. L., Constantinescu, S. N., Casadevall, N., and Vainchenker, W. (2005) Nature 434, 1144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jones, A. V., Kreil, S., Zoi, K., Waghorn, K., Curtis, C., Zhang, L., Score, J., Seear, R., Chase, A. J., Grand, F. H., White, H., Zoi, C., Loukopoulos, D., Terpos, E., Vervessou, E. C., Schultheis, B., Emig, M., Ernst, T., Lengfelder, E., Hehlmann, R., Hochhaus, A., Oscier, D., Silver, R.T., Reiter, A., and Cross, N. C. (2005) Blood 106, 2162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pradhan, A., Lambert, Q. T., and Reuther, G. W. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, 18502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pflanz, S., Hibbert, L., Mattson, J. D., Rosales, R., Vaisberg, E., Bazan, J. F., Phillips, J. H., McClanahan, T. K., de Waal malefyt, R., and Kastelein, R. A. (2004) J Immunol 2225Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kutok, J. L. and Wang, F. (2006) Ann Rev Pathol 1, 375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Frisan, T., Sjoberg, J., Dolcetti, R., Boiocchi, M., De Re, V., Carbone, A., Brautbar, C., Battat, S., Biberfeld, P., Eckman, M., et al. (1995) Blood 86, 1493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Herbst, H., Foss, H. D., Samol, J., Araujo, I., Klotzbach, H., Krause, H., Agathanggelou, A., Niedobitek, G., and Stein, H. (1996) Blood 87, 2918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schwaller, J., Tobler, A., Niklaus, G., Hurwitz, N., Hennig, I., Fey, M. F., and Borisch, B. (1995) Blood 85, 2182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maaser, C., Egan, L. J., Birkenbach, M. P., Eckmann, L., and Kagnoff, M. F. (2004) Immunology 112, 437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Langrish, C. L., Chen, Y., Blumenschein, W. M., Mattson, J., Basham, B., Sedgwick, J. D., McClanahan, T., Kastelein, R. A., and Cua, D. J. (2005) J Exp Med 201, 233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Layh-Schmitt, G. and Colbert, R. A. (2008) Curr Opin Rheumatol 20, 392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    McGeachy, M. J. and Cua, D. J. (2008) Immunity 28, 445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Langowski, J. L., Kastelein, R. A., and Oft, M. (2007) Trends Immunol 28, 207Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang, Y. Q., Ugai, S., Shimozato, O., Yu, L., Kawamura, K., Yamamoto, H., Yamaguchi, T., Saisho, H., and Tagawa, M. (2003) Int J Cancer 105, 820CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Oniki, S., Nagai, H., Horikawa, T., Furukawa, J., Belladonna, M.L., Yoshimoto, T., Hara, I., and Nishigori, C. (2006) Cancer Res 66, 6395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mortarini, R., Borri, A., Tragni, G., Bersani, I., Vegetti, C., Bajetta, E., Pilotti, S., Cerundolo, V., and Anichini, A. (2000) Cancer Res 60, 3559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Overwijk, W. W., de Visser, K. E., Tirion, F. H., de Jong, L. A., Pols, T. W., van der Velden, Y. U., van den Boorn, J. G., Keller, A. M., Buurman, W. A., Theoret, M. R., Blom, B., Restifo, N. P., Kruisbeek, A. M., Kastelein, R. A., and Haanen, J. B. (2006), J Immunol 176, 5213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kaiga, T., Sato, M., Kaneda, H., Iwakura, Y., Takayama, T., and Tahara, H. (2007) J Immunol 178, 7571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ugai, S., Shimozato, O., Yu, L., Wang, Y. Q., Kawamura, K., Yamamoto, H., Yamaguchi, T., Saisho, H., Sakiyama, S., and Tagawa, M. (2003) Cancer Gene Ther 10, 771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Murphy, C. A., Langrish, C. L., Chen, Y., Blumenschein, W., McClanahan, T., Kastelein, R. A., Sedgwick, J. D., and Cua, D. J. (2003) J Exp Med 198, 1951CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Willenborg, D. O., Fordham, S., Bernard, C. C., Cowden, W. B., and Ramshaw, I. A. (1996) J Immunol 157, 3223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Takeda, A., Hamano, S., Yamanaka, A., Hanada, T., Ishibashi, T., Mak, T. W., Yoshimura, A., and Yoshida, H. (2003) J Immunol 170, 4886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chiyo, M., Shimozato, O., Yu, L., Kawamura, K., Iizasa, T., Fujisawa, T., and Tagawa, M. (2005) Int J Cancer 115, 437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hisada, M., Kamiya, S., Fujita, K., Belladonna, M. L., Aoki, T., Koyanagi, Y., Mizuguchi, J., and Yoshimoto, T. (2004) Cancer Res 64, 1152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Morishima, N., Owaki, T., Asakawa, M., Kamiya, S., Mizuguchi, J., and Yoshimoto, T. (2005) J Immunol 175, 1686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Oniki, S., Nagai, H., Horikawa, T., Furukawa, J., Belladonna, M. L., Yoshimoto, T., Hara, I., and Nishigori, C. (2006) Cancer Res 66, 6395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Salcedo, R., Stauffer, J. K., Lincoln, E., Back, T. C., Hixon, J. A., Hahn, C., Shafer-Weaver, K., Malyguine, A., Kastelein, R., and Wigginton, J. M. (2004) J Immunol 173, 7170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hisada, M., Kamiya, S., Fujita, K., Belladonna, M. L., Aoki, T., Koyanagi, Y., Mizuguchi, J., and Yoshimoto, T. (2004) Cancer Res 64, 1152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Morishima, N., Owaki, T., Asakawa, M., Kamiya, S., Mizuguchi, J., and Yoshimoto, T. (2005) J Immunol 175, 1686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mayer, K. D., Mohrs, K., Reiley, W., Wittmer, S., Kohlmeier, J. E., Pearl, J. E., Cooper, A. M., Johnson, L. L., Woodland, D. L., and Mohrs, M. (2008) J Immunol 180, 693Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Salcedo, R., Stauffer, J. K., Lincoln, E., Back, T. C., Hixon, J. A., Hahn, C., Shafer-Weaver, K., Malyguine, A., Kastelein, R. A., and Wigginton, J. (2004) J Immunol 173, 7170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shimizu, M., Shimamura, M., Owaki, T., Asakawa, M., Fujita, K., Kudo, M., Iwakura, Y., Takeda, Y., Luster, A. D., Mizuguchi, J., and Yoshimoto, T. (2006) J Immunol 176, 7317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Feng, X. M., Chen, X. L., Liu, N., Chen, Z., Zhou, Y. L., Han, Z. B., Zhang, L., and Han, Z. C. (2007) Hum Immunol 68, 965CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Epperson, D. E. and Pober, J. S. (1994) J Immunol 153, 5402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cook-Mills, J. M. and Deem, T. L. (2005) J Leukoc Biol 77, 487CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Guo, J., Zhang, M., Wang, B., Yuan, Z., Guo, Z., Chen, T., Yu, Y., Qin, Z., and Cao, X. (2003) Int J Cancer 103, 212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lavergne, E., Combadiere, B., Bonduelle, O., Iga, M., Gao, J. L., Maho, M., Boissonnas, A., Murphy, P. M., Debre, P., and Combadiere, C. (2003) Cancer Res 63, 7468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Liu, L., Wang, S., Shan, B., Shao, L., Sato, A., Kawamura, K., Li, Q., Ma, G., and Tagawa, M. (2008), Scand J Immunol 68, 22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wang, S., Miyazaki, Y., Shinozaki, Y., and Yoshida, H. (2007) J Immunol 6421Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zou, W., Machelon, V., Coulomb-L’Hermin, A., Borvak, J., Nome, F., Isaeva, T., Wei, S., Krzysiek, R., Durand-Gasselin, I., Gordon, A., Pustilnik, T., Curiel, D. T., Galanaud, P., Capron, F., Emilie, D., and Curiel, T. J. (2001) Nat Med 7, 1339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gabrilovich, D. I., Chen, H. L., Girgis, K. R., Cunningham, H. T., Meny, G. M., Nadaf, S., Kavanaugh, D., and Carbone, D. P. (1996) Nat Med 2, 1096CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fricke, I., and Gabrilovich, D. I. (2006) Immunol Investig 35, 459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fontenot, J. D., Dooley, J. L., Farr, A. G., and Rudensky, A. Y. (2005) J Exp Med 202, 901CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chen, W., Jin, W., Hardegen, N., Lei, K. J., Li, L., Marinos, N., McGrady, G., and Wahl, S. M. (2003) J Exp Med 198, 1875CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Apostolou, I., and von Boehmer, H. (2004) J Exp Med 199, 1401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gavin, M. A., Rasmussen, J. P., Fontenot, J. D., Vasta, V., Manganiello, V. C., Beavo, J. A., and Rudensky, A. Y. (2007) Nature 445, 771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chen, Y., Kuchroo, V. K., Inobe, J., Hafler, D. A., and Weiner, H. L. (1994) Science 265, 1237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Groux, H., O’Garra, A., Bigler, M., Rouleau, M., Antonenko, S., de Vries, J. E., and Roncarolo, M. G. (1997) Nature 389, 737CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Curiel, T. J., Coukos, G., Zou, L., Alvarez, X., Cheng, P., Mottram, P., Evdemon-Hogan, M., Conejo-Garcia, J. R., Zhang, L., Burow, M., Zhu, Y., Wei, S., Kryczek, I., Daniel, B., Gordon, A., Myers, L., Lackner, A., Disis, M. L., Knutson, K. L., Chen, L., and Zou, W. (2004) Nat Med 10, 942CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sasada, T., Kimura, M., Yoshida, Y., Kanai, M., and Takabayashi, A. (2003) Cancer 98, 1089CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sato, E., Olson, S. H., Ahn, J., Bundy, B., Nishikawa, H., Qian, F., Jungbluth, A. A., Frosina, D., Gnjatic, S., Ambrosone, C., Kepner, J., Odunsi, T., Ritter, G., Lele, S., Chen, Y. T., Ohtani, H., Old, L. J., and Odunsi, K. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102, 18538CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ghiringhelli, F., Menard, C., Terme, M., Flament, C., Taieb, J., Chaput, N., Puig, P. E., Novault, S., Escudier, B., Vivier, E., Lecesne, A., Robert, C., Blay, J. Y., Bernard, J., Caillat-Zucman, S., Freitas, A., Tursz, T., Wagner-Ballon, O., Capron, C., Vainchencker, W., Martin, F., and Zitvogel, L. (2005) J Exp Med 202, 1075CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ghiringhelli, F., Puig, P. E., Roux, S., Parcellier, A., Schmitt, E., Solary, E., Kroemer, G., Martin, F., Chauffert, B., and Zitvogel, L. (2005) J Exp Med 202, 919CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bettelli, E., Carrier, Y., Gao, W., Korn, T., Strom, T. B., Oukka, M., Weiner, H. L., and Kuchroo, V. K. (2006) Nature 441, 235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bettelli, E., Oukka, M., and Kuchroo, V. K. (2007) Nat Immunol 8, 345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Neufert, C., Becker, C., Wirtz, S., Fantini, M. C., Weigmann, B., Galle, P. R., and Neurath, M. F. (2007) Eur J Immunol 37, 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Huber, M., Steinwald, V., Guralnik, A., Brustle, A., Kleemann, P., Rosenplanter, C., Decker, T., and Lohoff, M. (2008), Int Immunol 20, 223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Villarino, A. V., Larkin, J. I., Saris, C. J. M., Canton, A. J., Lucas, S., Wong, T., de Sauvage, F. J., and Hunter, C. A. (2005) J Immunol 174Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Batten, M., Li, J., Yi, S., Kljavin, N. M., Danilenko, D. M., Lucas, S., Lee, J., de Sauvage, F. J., and Ghilardi, N. (2006) Nat Immunol 1Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Battaglia, M., Gregori, S., Bacchetta, R., and Roncarolo, M. G. (2006) Semin Immunol 18, 120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Awasthi, A., Carrier, Y., Peron, J. P., Bettelli, E., Kamanaka, M., Flavell, R. A., Kuchroo, V. K., Oukka, M., and Weiner, H. L. (2007) Nat Immunol 8, 1380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fitzgerald, D. C., Zhang, G. X., El-Behi, M., Fonseca-Kelly, Z., Li, H., Yu, S., Saris, C. J., Gran, B., Ciric, B., and Rostami, A. (2007) Nat Immunol 8, 1372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pasare, C. and Medzhitov, R. (2003) Science 299, 1033CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Devergne, O., Birkenbach, M., and Kieff, E. (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 12041CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Collison, L. W., Workman, C. J., Kuo, T. T., Boyd, K., Wang, Y., Vignali, K. M., Cross, R., Sehy, D., Blumberg, R. S., and Vignali, D. A. (2007) Nature 450, 566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Siebler, J., Wirtz, S., Frenzel, C., Schuchmann, M., Lohse, A. W., Galle, P. R., and Neurath, M. F. (2008) J Immunol 180, 30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Yamanaka, A., Hamano, S., Miyazaki, Y., Ishii, K., Takeda, A., Mak, T. W., Himeno, K., Yoshimura, A., and Yoshida, H. (2004) J Immunol 172, 3590PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Comparative Biomedical SciencesLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations