The central purpose of a fitness-for-duty (FFD) evaluation is to determine whether an employee1 is able to safely perform a defined job. The FFD evaluation is an attempt by an employer or a regulatory agency to assess an employee whose psychological status is perceived as potentially unstable or threatening in some way that affects job performance or safety. FFD evaluations occur in the preemployment context as well as post-employment context. This discussion will address only post-employment FFD evaluations, which arise in less-structured circumstances than preemployment FFD evaluations and are less well addressed in the literature 2. In direct contrast with preemployment FFD evaluations, referrals for post-employment FFD evaluations commonly arise in a context of acute crisis for both employer and employee.