Animal Imaging

  • Donald Williams
  • Alexandre Coimbra
  • Fuqiang Zhao


This chapter discusses challenges and practical approaches to animal fMRI with respect to anesthetic regimens, conscious animal studies, activation paradigms, optimal pulse sequence selection, and the rigor required for drug discovery applications. Examples on the use of animal fMRI to support drug discovery are presented. The examples illustrate (1) technical development and qualification of a quantitative assay for pain, (2) the use of pharmacological tools to support a link between a receptor antagonist elicited ASL-CBF change with the corresponding neuronal activity, and (3) interrogation of mechanism of action of an analgesic.


Cerebral Blood Flow Neuropathic Pain Cerebral Blood Volume Arterial Spin Label fMRI Signal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We acknowledge the contributions of Denise Welsh to the unpublished data presented here. We thank Jeffery Evelhoch and Richard Hargreaves for their valuable input.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald Williams
    • 1
  • Alexandre Coimbra
  • Fuqiang Zhao
  1. 1.Imaging DepartmentMerck Research LaboratoriesWest PointUSA

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