Advertisement

September 11 Terrorist Attacks Against the United States and the Law Enforcement Response

  • J.M. Shane
Chapter

The terror attacks on the United States that occurred on September 11, 2001 are defining events in US history. The oceans separating the North American continent from the tumultuous Middle East no longer seemed such a protective barrier. The long-held belief that such things only happened over there showed the United States just how vulnerable she was to a highly determined enemy.

Keywords

Terrorist Attack Fusion Center Commission Report Central Intelligence Agency Federal Aviation Administration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30(1), 47–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnew, R. (1994). The techniques of neutralization and violence. Criminology, 32, 555–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, C. E. (July 23, 2008). Information sharing at the federal, state and local levels. Statement before the U.S. senate of under secretary for intelligence and analysis. Washington, DC: Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Retrieved on December 22, 2008, from http://hsgac.senate.gov/public/_files/072308Allen.pdf.
  4. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  5. Apple, Jr. R. W. (September 14, 2001). After the attacks: No middle ground. New York Times.Google Scholar
  6. Atwan, A. (2006). The secret history of Al Qaeda. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Austin, C. J. (2006). Up against the wall: Violence in the making and unmaking of the black panther party. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Capara, G., & Pastorelli, C. (1990). Mechanisms of moral disengagement. In W. Reich (Ed.), Origins of terrorism: Psychologies, ideologies, theologies, states of mind (pp. 161–191). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Capara, G., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(2), 365–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Becker, E. (1973). The denial of death. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  11. Becker, E. (1975). Escape from evil. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bergen, P. (2006). The Osama bin Laden I Know. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Berger, D. (2006). Outlaws of America: The weather underground and the politics of solidarity. Oakland, CA: AK Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bindra, S. (September 19, 2001). India identifies terrorist training camps. CNN.com. Retrieved on January 29, 2009, from http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/central/09/19/inv.afghanistan.camp/
  15. Blanchard, C. M. (2007). Al Qaeda: Statements and evolving ideology. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on December 21, 2008, from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32759.pdf
  16. Bolz, F., Dudonis, K. J., & Schultz, D. P. (1996). The counter-terrorism handbook: Tactics, procedures, and techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  17. Borch, F. (2003). Comparing Pearl Harbor and “9/11”: Intelligence failure? American unpreparedness? Military responsibility? The Journal of Military History, 67(3), 845–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Borum, R. (2003, July). Understanding the terrorist mindset. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, pp. 7–10.Google Scholar
  19. Bryan, J. (1975). This soldier still at war. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  20. Carter, D. L. (2007). The intelligence fusion process for state, local and tribal law enforcement. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, Intelligence Program, School of Criminal Justice.Google Scholar
  21. Carter, D. L. (2008). The intelligence fusion process. Intelligence Policy Paper Series. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, Intelligence Program, School of Criminal Justice.Google Scholar
  22. Chehab, Z. (2006). Iraq Ablaze: Inside the insurgency. New York: IB Tauris & Co.Google Scholar
  23. Cloward, R. (1959). Illegitimate means, anomie and deviant behavior. American Sociological Review, 24(2), 164–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cloward, R., & Ohlin, L. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  25. CNN. (September 21, 2001). Bush delivers ultimatum. Retrieved on December 21, 2008, from http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/central/09/20/ret.afghan.bush/index.html
  26. Coll, S. (February 22, 2004). Legal disputes over hunt paralyzed Clinton’s aides. Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on January 29, 2009, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A59781-2004Feb21
  27. Congressional Digest. (April 2003). Total information awareness program: Counterterrorism and information technology. Congressional Digest, 4, 104–107.Google Scholar
  28. Crenshaw, M. (2001). The psychology of terrorism: An agenda for the 21st century. Political Psychology, 21, 405–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DeMott, B. (October 2004). Whitewash as public service: How the 9/11 commission report defrauds the nation. Harper’s Magazine. Retrieved on December 17, 2008, from http://www.harpers.org/archive/2004/10/0080234
  30. Echevarria II, A. J. (2005). Fourth-generation warfare and other myths. Washington, DC: Strategic Policy Studies. Retrieved on December 17, 2008, from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub632.pdf
  31. Eggen, D. (August 2, 2006). 9/11 panel suspected deception by Pentagon. Washington Post, p. A3.Google Scholar
  32. Eggen, D. (September 7, 2007). Judge invalidates patriot act provisions. Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on January 20, 2008, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/06/AR2007090601438_pf.html
  33. Eldridge, T. R., Ginsburg, S., Hempel II, W. T., Kephart, J. L., Moore, K., & Accolla, J. A. (2004). 9/11 and Terrorist Travel: Staff Report of the national commission on terrorist attacks upon the United States. Retrieved on December 21, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/911_TerrTrav_Monograph.pdf
  34. Elliot, M. (August 4, 2002). Could 9/11 have been prevented? Time. Retrieved on December 21, 2008, from http://www.time.com/time/nation/printout/0,8816,333835,00.html.
  35. Ezekiel, R. S. (1995). The Racist Mind. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  36. Fisk, R. (July 10, 1996). Interview with Saudi dissident Bin Laden. The Independent, London.Google Scholar
  37. Gendar, A. (May 10, 2005). City’s disaster plan draws fire. FDNY chief calls command system ‘bad policy.’ New York Daily News. Google Scholar
  38. General Accounting Office. (May 2004). Data mining. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.Google Scholar
  39. German, M. & Stanley, J. (December 2007). What’s wrong with fusion centers? Washington, DC: American Civil Liberties Union.Google Scholar
  40. Gibbs, S. (2005). Islam and Islamic extremism: An existential analysis. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 45(2), 156–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gladwell, M. (March 10, 2003). Connecting the dots: The paradox of intelligence reform. The New Yorker. Google Scholar
  42. Greig, D. W. (1976). International law (2nd ed.). London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  43. Gunarathna, R. (August 2001). Blowback, a special report on Al-Qaeda, Jane’s Intelligence Review.Google Scholar
  44. Gunarathna, R. (2002). Inside Al Qaeda, global network of terror. New York: Berkley Books.Google Scholar
  45. Gwertzman, B. (August 3, 2004). Cordesman: 9/11 commission report lacks specificity. Interview with Anthony Cordesman, center for international and strategic studies in Washington. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on December 12, 2008, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/7229/cordesman.html.
  46. Hamm, M. (2005). Crimes committed by terrorist groups: Theory, research, and prevention. Final report to the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC: NCJ# 211203.Google Scholar
  47. Harris, J. C. (2000). Revolutionary black nationalism: The black panther party. Journal of Negro History, 86(3), 409–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Henry, E. (April 23, 2004). Republicans amplify criticism of 9/11 commission. CNN.com. Retrieved on December 17, 2008, from http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/04/23/commission.senators/index.html
  49. House of Commons Library Report. (2001). 11 September 2001: The response. Research Paper 01/72, International Affairs and Defense Section, House of Commons.Google Scholar
  50. Huntington, S. P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  51. Hura, M., McLeod, G., Larson, E. V., Schneider, J., Gonzales, D., Norton, D. M., et al. (2000). Interoperability: A continuing challenge in coalition air operations. RAND monograph report. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Google Scholar
  52. Isikoff, M. (July 28, 2003). The 9-11 report: Slamming the FBI. Newsweek, 142(4), 2–3.Google Scholar
  53. Isikoff, M. & Klaidman, D. (June 4, 2002). The 9/11 terrorists the CIA should have caught. Newsweek. Google Scholar
  54. Jehl, D. (December 27, 2001). A nation challenged: Saudi Arabia; Holy war lured Saudis as rulers looked away. New York Times. Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, J. T. (June/July 2002). Jihad and just war. First Things: The Journal of Religion, Culture and Public Life, pp. 12–14. Retrieved on December 22, 2008, from http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2034
  56. Kaplan, E. (March 18, 2003). Letter to president bush from Elaine Kaplan regarding allegations of mismanagement at the FAA. Retrieved on January 22, 2009, from http://www.osc.gov/documents/cltr3_02.pdf
  57. Katovsky, B. (July 9, 2006). Flying the deadly skies. San Francisco Chronicle. Google Scholar
  58. Katzman, K. (2005). Al Qaeda: Profile and threat assessment. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on December 21, 2008, from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL33038.pdf
  59. Kean, T. H., & Hamilton, L. H. (January 2, 2008). Stonewalled by the CIA. New York Times.Google Scholar
  60. Kelman, H. C. (1990). Applying a human needs perspective to the practice of conflict resolution: The Israeli-Palestinian case. In J. W. Burton (Ed.), Conflict: Human needs theory. New York: St. Martin’s.Google Scholar
  61. Lind, W. S., Nightengale, K., Schmitt, J. F., Sutton, J. W., & Wilson, G. I. (October 1989). The changing face of war: Into the fourth generation. Marine Corps Gazette, pp. 22–26.Google Scholar
  62. Linzer, D., & Pincus, W. (October 6, 2005). CIA rejects discipline for 9/11 failures. Washington Post.com. Retrieved on January 22, 2009, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2005/10/05/AR2005100501503.html
  63. Lueck, T. (September 30, 2005). Mayor’s plan puts police commissioner in charge of disaster control. New York Times. Google Scholar
  64. Markoff, J. (February 13, 2002). Chief takes over at agency to thwart attacks on U.S. New York Times. Google Scholar
  65. Mazzetti, M. (December 22, 2007). 9/11 panel study finds CIA withheld tapes. New York Times. Google Scholar
  66. McGarrell, E. F., Freilich, J., & Chermak, S. (2007). Intelligence-led policing as a framework for responding to terrorism. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23(2), 142–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McKinsey Report. (August 19, 2002a). McKinsey report: Increasing FDNY’s preparedness. Retrieved on December 22, 2008, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/html/mck_report/toc.html.
  68. McKinsey Report. (August 19, 2002b). McKinsey report: Improving NYPD emergency preparedness and response. Retrieved on December 22, 2008, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/pdf/nypdemergency.pdf.
  69. Mead, K. M. (August 16, 2002). Memorandum to Elaine Kaplan from inspector general Kenneth M. Mead on the results of the OIG investigation DI-02-0207. Retrieved on January 22, 2009 from http://www.osc.gov/documents/oscrt6.pdf
  70. Merton, R. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  71. Miller, L. (2006). The terrorist mind: A psychological and political analysis. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(2), 121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2002a). The 9/11 commission report. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  73. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2002b). Overview of the enemy. Staff Statement, No. 15, p. 2–3. Retrieved on December 23, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/staff_statement_15.pdf
  74. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2002c). Outline of the 9/11 plot. Staff Statement, No. 16, pp. 3, 6–10. Retrieved on December 23, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/staff_statement_16.pdf
  75. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2002d). The aviation security system and the 9/11 attacks. Staff Statement, No. 3. Retrieved on December 23, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/staff_statement_3.pdf
  76. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2002e). Diplomacy. Staff Statement, No. 5. Retrieved on December 23, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/staff_statement_5.pdf
  77. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2002f). Threats and responses in 2001. Staff Statement, No. 10. Retrieved on December 23, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/staff_statement_10.pdf
  78. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2002 g). Improvising a homeland defense. Staff Statement, No. 17. Retrieved on December 23, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/staff_statement_17.pdf
  79. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2002 h). Law enforcement, counterterrorism and intelligence collection in the United states prior to 9/11. Staff Statement, No. 9. Retrieved on December 23, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/staff_statement_9.pdf
  80. National Task Force on Interoperability. (2003). Why can’t we talk? Working together to bridge the communications gap to save lives. National Task Force on Interoperability, Washington, DC: NCJ# 204348.Google Scholar
  81. New York Times. (June 23, 2002). Striking first. New York Times, p. C12.Google Scholar
  82. Novarro, J. (2005). Hunting terrorists: A look at the psychopathology of terror. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  83. PBS FrontLine. (2002). The man who knew. Retrieved on January 8, 2009, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/knew/
  84. PBS FrontLine. (2006). The insurgency. Retrieved on January 2, 2008, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/insurgency/view/
  85. Perkel, W. (2004). Money laundering and terrorism: Informal value transfer systems. American Criminal Law Review , 41, 183–213.Google Scholar
  86. Pillar, P. (2001). Terrorism and US foreign policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  87. Qutb, S. (1981). Milestones. The Mother Mosque Foundation.Google Scholar
  88. Ratcliffe, J. H. (2008). Intelligence-led policing. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  89. Rhode, D. & Chivers, C. J. (March 17, 2002). A nation challenged; Qaeda’s grocery lists and manuals of killing. New York Times.Google Scholar
  90. Rhode, D., & Gall, C. (August 28, 2005). In a corner of Pakistan a debate rages: Are terrorist camps still functioning? New York Times. Google Scholar
  91. Ridgeway, J. (2005). The 5 unanswered questions about 9/11. New York: Seven Stories Press.Google Scholar
  92. Risen, J., & Lichtblau, E. (December 16, 2005). Bush lets U.S. spy on callers without courts. New York Times, p. A1.Google Scholar
  93. Rosenbaum, W. A. (1975). Poiiticai cuiture. London: Neison.Google Scholar
  94. Rosenzweig, P. (2003). Civil liberty and the response to terrorism. Duquesne Law Review, 42, 663–723.Google Scholar
  95. Roth, J., Greenburg, D., & Wille, S. (n.d.). Monograph on terrorist financing. Washington, DC: Staff Report to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved on December 21, 2008, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/911_TerrFin_Monograph.pdf
  96. Schultz, R. H., & Vogt, A. (2003). It’s war! Fighting post-11 September global terrorism through a doctrine of preemption. Terrorism and Political Violence, 15(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Staub, E. (2003). Notes on cultures of violence, cultures of caring and peace, and the fulfillment of basic human needs. Political Psychology, 24(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sykes, G., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review. 22(6), 664–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. van Creveld, M. (1991). Transformation of war. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  100. White, J. (2002). Terrorism: An introduction (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.Google Scholar
  101. White House Press Release. (September 20, 2001). Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People. Retrieved on January 5, 2009, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html
  102. Williams, M. (April 26, 2006). The total information awareness project lives on. Technology Review. Google Scholar
  103. Wright, L. (2006). The looming tower: Al-Qaeda and the road to 9/11. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  104. Zinser, T. J. (August 31, 2006). Results of OIG investigation of 9/11 commission staff referral. Memorandum. Retrieved on January 22, 2009, from http://www.coherentbabble.com/signingstatements/ExecAgencies/DeptTrans-PIG-08-31-2006.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Law and Police ScienceJohn Jay College of Criminal JusticeNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations