Advertisement

Intervention and Treatment Methods for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Nozomi Naoi
Chapter

Abstract

Reinforcement, training replacement behaviors, discrete trail training, pivotal response training, behavioral cusps, and related training strategies will be emphasized. Research on these and related methods as they apply to autism will be covered.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Verbal Behavior Target Behavior Maladaptive Behavior Picture Exchange Communication System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mentaldisorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, S., Avery, D., DiPietro, E., Edwards, G., & Christian, W. (1987). Intensive home-based early intervention with autistic children. Education & Treatment of Children, 10, 352–366.Google Scholar
  3. Arntzen, E., & Almas, I. (2002). Effects of mand-tact versus tact-only training on the acquisition of tacts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 419–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayllon, T., & Haughton, E. (1964). Modification of symptomatic verbal behavior of mental patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2, 87–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baer, D., Peterson, R., & Sherman, J. (1967). The development of imitation by reinforcing behavioral similarity to a model. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10, 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, D., Skinner, D., Rodriguez, P., Gut, D., & Correa, V. (1999). Awareness, use, and satisfaction with services for Latino parents of young children with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65, 367–381.Google Scholar
  7. Baker-Ericzén, M., Stahmer, A., & Burns, A. (2007). Child demographics associated with outcomes in a community-based pivotal response training program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9, 52–60.Google Scholar
  8. Berkowitz, S., & Buyrberry, J. (1989). Functionality of two modes of communication in the community by students with developmental disabilities: A comparison of signing and communication books. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 14, 227–233.Google Scholar
  9. Bijou, S., & Baer, D. (1965). Child development II: Universal stage of infancy. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  10. Bondy, A., & Frost, L. (1994). The picture exchange communication system. Focus on Autistic Behavior, 9, 1–19.Google Scholar
  11. Bondy, A., & Frost, L. (1998). The picture exchange communication system. Seminars in Speech and Language, 19, 373–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bondy, A., & Frost, L. (2002). A picture’s worth: PECS and other visual communication strategies in autism. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.Google Scholar
  13. Bosch, S., & Fuqua, R. (2001). Behavioral cusps: A model for selecting target behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 123–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bridges, S. (2004). Multicultural issues in augmentative and alternative communication and language: Research to practice. Topics in Language Disorders, 24, 62–75.Google Scholar
  15. Carr, E. (1977). The motivation of self-injurious behavior: A review of some hypotheses. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 800–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr, E., Dunlap, G., Horner, R., Koegel, R., Turnbull, A., Sailor, W., et al. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4, 4–16.Google Scholar
  17. Carr, E., & Durand, V. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Carr, D., & Felce, J. (2007a). Increase in production of spoken words in some children with autism after PECS teaching to phase III. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 780–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr, D., & Felce, J. (2007b). The effects of PECS teaching to phase III on the communicative interactions between children with autism and their teachers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 724–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carr, E., Kologinsky, E., & Leff-Simon, S. (1987). Acquisition of sign language by autistic children III: Generalized descriptive phrases. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 217–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Carroll, R., & Hesse, B. (1987). The effect of alternating mand and tact training on the acquisition of tacts. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 5, 55–65.Google Scholar
  22. Charlop-Christy, M., & Carpenter, M. (2000). Modified incidental teaching sessions: A procedure for parents to increase spontaneous speech in their child with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 98–112.Google Scholar
  23. Charlop-Christy, M., Carpenter, M., Le, L., LeBlanc, L., & Kellet, K. (2002). Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: Assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 213–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Coe, D., Matson, J., Fee, V., Manikam, R., & Linarello, C. (1990). Training nonverbal and verbal play skills to mentally retarded and autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 177–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davies, M., Howlin, P., Bernal, J., & Warren, S. (1998). Treating severe self-injury in a community setting: Constraints on assessment and intervention. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 3, 26–32.Google Scholar
  26. Delprato, D. J. (2001). Comparisons of discrete-trial and normalized behavioral intervention for young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 315–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Derby, K., Wacker, D., Sasso, G., Steege, M., Northup, J., Cigrand, K., et al. (1992). Brief functional assessment techniques to evaluate aberrant behavior in an outpatient setting: A summary of 79 cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 713–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ducharme, J., & Van Houten, R. (1994). Operant extinction in the treatment of severe maladaptive behavior. Behavior Modification, 18, 139–170.Google Scholar
  29. Duker, P., Dortmans, A., & Lodder, E. (1993). Establishing the manding function ofcommunicative gestures with individuals with severe/profound mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 14, 39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Durand, M., & Carr, E. (1987). Social influences on ‘self-stimulatory’ behavior: Analysis and treatment application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 119–132.Google Scholar
  31. Dyches, T., Wilder, L., Sudweeks, R., Obiakor, F., & Algozzine, B. (2004). Multicultural issues in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 211–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Farmer-Dougan, V. (1994). Increasing requests by adults with developmental disabilities using incidental teaching by peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 553–544.Google Scholar
  33. Fenske, E., Zalenski, S., Krantz, P., & McClannahan, L. (1985). Age at intervention and treatment outcome for autistic children in a comprehensive intervention program. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5, 49–58.Google Scholar
  34. Fisher, W., Piazza, C., Cataldo, M., Harell, R., Jefferson, G., & Corner, R. (1993). Functional communication training with and without extinctions and punishment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 23–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Frost, L., & Bondy, A. (1994). The picture exchange communication system training manual. Cherry Hill, NJ: Pyramid Educational Consultants.Google Scholar
  36. Fung, F., & Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (1999). Service delivery in working with clients from Cantonese-speaking backgrounds. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 8, 309–318.Google Scholar
  37. Ganz, J., & Simpson, R. (2004). Effects on communicative requesting and speech development of the picture exchange communication system in children with characteristics of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 395–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Greer, R., Yuan, L., & Gautreaux, G. (2005). Novel dictation and intraverbal responses as a function of a multiple exemplar history. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 99–116.Google Scholar
  39. Hagopian, L., Fisher, W., Sullivan, M., Acquisto, J., & LeBlanc, L. (1998). Effectiveness of functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment: A summary of 21 inpatient cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 211–235.Google Scholar
  40. Hanley, G., Iwata, B., & McCord, B. (2003). Functional analysis of problem behavior: A review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 147–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hanley, G., Piazza, C., & Fisher, W. (1997). Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention-maintained destructive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 229–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Harris, S. L., Handleman, J. S., Gordon, R., Kristoff, B., & Fuentes, F. (1991). Changes in cognitive and language functioning of preschool children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 21, 281–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harris, S. L., Handleman, J. S., Kristoff, B., Bass, L., & Gordon, R. (1990). Changes in language development among autistic and peer children in segregated and integrated preschool settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 20, 23–32.Google Scholar
  44. Harris, S. L., Wolchik, S., & Weitz, S. (1981). The acquisition of language skills by autistic children: Can parents do the job? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 373–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1968). Establishing use of descriptive adjectives in the spontaneous speech of disadvantaged preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 109–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1975). Incidental teaching of language in the preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 411–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hartman, E., & Klatt, K. (2005). The effects of deprivation, presession exposure, and preferences on teaching manding to children with autism. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 135–144.Google Scholar
  48. Horner, R. (2000). Positive behavior supports. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 15, 97–105.Google Scholar
  49. Horner, R., Dunlap, G., Koegel, R., Carr, E., Sailor, W., Anderson, J., et al. (1990). Toward a technology of “nonaversive” behavior support. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 15, 125–132.Google Scholar
  50. Howlin, P. (1981). The effectiveness of operant language training with autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 89–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Howlin, P., Gordon, R., Pasco, G., Wade, G., & Charman, T. (2007). The effectiveness of picture exchange communication system (PECS) training for teachers of children with autism: A pragmatic, group randomised controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 48, 473–481.Google Scholar
  52. Hume, K., & Odom, S. (2007). Effects of an individual work system on the independent functioning of students with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1166–1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hung, D. (1977). Generalization of ‘curiosity’ questioning behavior in autistic children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 8, 237–245.Google Scholar
  54. Hung, D. (1980). Training and generalization of yes and no as mands in two autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 139–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hwa-Froelich, D., & Vigil, D. (2004). Three aspects of cultural influence on communication: A literature review. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 25, 107–118.Google Scholar
  56. Ingersoll, B., & Gergans, S. (2007). The effect of a parent-implemented imitation intervention on spontaneous imitation skills in young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 163–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ingersoll, B., Lewis, E., & Kroman, E. (2007). Teaching the imitation and spontaneous use of descriptive gestures in young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral intervention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1446–1456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ingersoll, B., & Schreibman, L. (2006). Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: Effects on language, pretend play, and joint attention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 487–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Iwata, B., Dorsey, M., Slifer, K., Bauman, K., & Richman, G. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kaiser, A., Ostrosky, M., & Alpert, C. (1993). Training teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching with nonvocal preschool children. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18, 188–199.Google Scholar
  61. Kennedy, C., Meyer, K., Knowles, T., & Shukla, S. (2000). Analyzing the multiple functions of stereotypical behavior for students with autism: Implications for assessment and treatment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 559–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Koegel, R., Bimbela, A., & Schreibman, L. (1996). Collateral effects of parent training on family interactions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26, 347–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Koegel, R., Camarata, S., Koegel, L., Ben-Tall, A., & Smith, A. (1998). Increasing speech intelligibility in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 241–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Koegel, R., & Koegel, L. (eds). (1995). Teaching children with autism: Strategies for initiating positive interactions and improving learning opportunities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  65. Koegel, L., Koegel, R., & Dunlap, G. (eds). (1996). Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  66. Koegel, L., Koegel, R., Harrower, J., & Carter, C. (1999). Pivotal response intervention I: Overview of approach. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24, 174–185.Google Scholar
  67. Koegel, L., Koegel, R., Shoshan, Y., & McNerney, E. (1999). Pivotal response intervention II: Preliminary long-term outcomes data. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24, 186–198.Google Scholar
  68. Koegel, R., Koegel, L., & Surratt, A. (1992). Language intervention and disruptive behavior in preschool children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22, 141–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Koegel, R., O’Dell, M., & Koegel, L. (1987). A natural language teaching paradigm for nonverbal autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 187–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Koegel, R., O’Dell, M., & Dunlap, G. (1988). Producing speech use in nonverbal autistic children by reinforcing attempts. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 525–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Koegel, R., & Williams, J. (1980). Direct versus indirect response-reinforcer relationships in teaching autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 537–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Koita, H., & Sonoyama, S. (2004). Communication training using the picture exchange communication system (PECS): Case study of a child with autistic disorder. Japanese Journal of Behavior Analysis, 19, 161–174.Google Scholar
  73. Koita, H., Sonoyama, S., & Takeuchi, K. (2003). Communication training with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) for children with autistic disorder: The training program and current and future research. Japanese Journal of Behavior Analysis, 18, 120–130.Google Scholar
  74. Krantz, P., & McClannahan, L. (1993). Teaching children with autism to initiate to peers: Effects of a script-fading procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 121–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lamarre, J., & Holland, J. (1985). The functional independence of mands and tacts. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 5–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Laraway, S., Snycerski, S., Michael, J., & Poling, A. (2003). Motivating operations and terms to describe them: Some further refinements. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 407–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Laski, K., Charlop, M., & Schreibman, L. (1988). Training parents to use the natural language paradigm to increase their autistic children’s speech. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 391–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lian, M. (1996). Teaching Asian American children. In E. Durán (Ed.), Teaching students with moderate/severe disabilities, including autism: Strategies for second language learners in inclusive settings (2nd ed., pp. 239–253). Springfield, IL, England: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  79. Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1989). The role of age at assessment, developmental level, and test in the stability of intelligence scores in young autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 483–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1994). TEACCH services for preschool children. In S. L. Harris & J. S. Handleman (Eds.), Preschool education programs for children with autism (pp. 87–106). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  81. Lovaas, O. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lovaas, O., Berberich, J., Perloff, B., & Schaeffer, B. (1966). Acquisition of imitative speech in schizophrenic children. Science, 151, 705–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lovaas, O., Koegel, R., Simmons, J., & Long, J. (1973). Some generalization and follow up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 131–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mace, F., & Belfiore, P. (1990). Behavioral momentum in the treatment of escape-motivated stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 507–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Matson, J., & LoVullo, S. (2008). A review of behavioral treatments for self-injurious behaviors of persons with autism spectrum disorders. Behavior Modification, 32, 61–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Matson, J., & Nebel-Schwalm, M. (2007). Comorbid psychopathology with autism spectrum disorder in children: An overview. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 341–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Matson, J., & Taras, M. (1989). A 20 year review of punishment and alternative methods to treat problem behaviors in developmentally delayed persons. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 10, 85–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. McEachin, J., Smith, T., & Lovaas, O. (1993). Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 359–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. McGee, G., Almeida, M., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Feldman, R. (1992). Promoting reciprocal interactions via peer incidental teaching. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 117–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. McGee, G., Krantz, P., Mason, D., & McClannahan, L. (1983). A modified incidental-teaching procedure for autistic youth: Acquisition and generalization of receptive object labels. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 329–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. McGee, G., Krantz, P., & McClannahan, L. (1985). The facilitative effects of incidental teaching on preposition use by autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 17–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mesibov, G. (1994). A comprehensive program for serving people with autism and their families: The TEACCH model. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Autism in children and adults: Etiology, assessment, and intervention (pp. 85–97). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  93. Mesibov, G. (1996). Division TEACCH: A program model for working with autistic people and their families. In M. C. Roberts (Ed.), Model practices in service delivery in child and family mental health. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  94. Mesibov, G., Schopler, E., & Hearsey, K. (1994). Structured teaching. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Behavioral issues in autism (pp. 195–207). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  95. Metz, J. (1965). Conditioning generalized imitation in autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 4, 389–399.Google Scholar
  96. Michael, J. (1982). Distinguishing between discriminative and motivational functions of stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Michael, J. (1993). Establishing operations. Behavior Analyst, 16, 191–206.Google Scholar
  98. Michael, J. (2000). Implications and refinements of the establishing operation concept. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 401–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Miranda-Linne, F., & Melin, L. (1992). Acquisition, generalization, and spontaneous use of color adjectives: A comparison of incidental teaching and traditional discrete-trial procedures for children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13, 191–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Naoi, N., Yokoyama, K., & Yamamoto, J. (2007). Intervention for tact as reporting in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 174–184.Google Scholar
  101. Neef, N., Walters, J., & Egel, A. (1984). Establishing generative yes/no responses in developmentally disabled children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 453–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nuzzolo-Gomez, R., & Greer, R. (2004). Emergence of untaught mands and tacts of novel adjective-object pairs as a function of instructional history. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 20, 63–76.Google Scholar
  103. Ozonoff, S., & Cathcart, K. (1998). Effectiveness of a home program intervention for young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 25–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Panerai, S., Ferrante, L., & Zingale, M. (2002). Benefits of the TEACCH programme as compared with a non-specific approach. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46, 318–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Partington, J., & Sundberg, M. (1998). The assessment of basic language and learning skills (the ABLLS). Pleasant Hill, CA: Behavior Analysts, Inc.Google Scholar
  106. Partington, J. W., Sundberg, M. L., Newhouse, L., & Spengler, S. M. (1994). Overcoming an autistic child’s failure to acquire a tact repertoire. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 733–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Peppé, S., McCann, J., Gibbon, F., O’Hare, A., & Rutherford, M. (2007). Receptive and expressive prosodic ability in children with high-functioning autism. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1015–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Peterson, S., Bondy, A., Vincent, Y., & Finnegan, C. (1995). Effects of altering communicative input for students with autism and no speech: Two case studies. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 11, 93–100.Google Scholar
  109. Piazza, C., Moes, D., & Fisher, W. (1996). Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and demand fading in the treating fading in the treatment of escape-maintained destructive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 569–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pierce, K., & Schreibman, L. (1995). Increasing complex social behaviors in children with autism: Effects of peer-implemented pivotal response training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 285–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Potoczak, K., Carr, J., & Michael, J. (2007). The effects of consequence manipulation during functional analysis of problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 719–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Prizant, B., & Rubin, E. (1999). Contemporary issues in interventions for autism spectrum disorders: A commentary. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24, 199–208.Google Scholar
  113. Pruchno, R., Patrick, J., & Burant, C. (1997). African American and White mothers of adults with chronic disabilities: Caregiving burden and satisfaction. Family Relations, 46, 335–346.Google Scholar
  114. Rodriguez, B., & Olswang, L. (2003). Mexican-American and Anglo-American mothers’ beliefs and values about child rearing, education, and language impairment. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12, 452–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rogers-Dulan, J., & Blancher, J. (1995). African American families, religion, and disability: A conceptual framework. Mental Retardation, 33, 226–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rogers-Warren, A., & Warren, S. (1980). Mands for verbalization: Facilitating the display of newly trained language in children. Behavior Modification, 4, 361–382.Google Scholar
  117. Rosales-Ruiz, J., & Baer, D. (1997). Behavioral cusps: A developmental and pragmatic concept for behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 533–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Ross, D., & Greer, R. (2003). Generalized imitation and the mand: Inducing first instances of speech in young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 58–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rossi, C., & Balandin, S. (2005). Bilingualism, culture, and AAC. Acquiring Knowledge in Speech, Language and Hearing, 7, 27–29.Google Scholar
  120. Schopler, E. (1989). Principles for directing both educational treatment and research. In C. Gillberg (Ed.), Diagnosis and treatment of autism (pp. 167–183). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  121. Schopler, E. (1997). Implementation of TEACCH philosophy. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 767–795). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  122. Schopler, E., Brehm, S., Kinsbourne, M., & Reichler, R. (1971). Effect of treatment structure on development in autistic children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 24, 415–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Schopler, E., Mesibov, G., & Hearsey, K. (1995). Structured teaching in the TEACCH system. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 243–268). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  124. Schopler, E., Reichler, R., Bashford, A., Lansing, M., & Marcus, L. (1990). Individualized assessment and treatment for autistic and developmentally disabled children: 1. Psychoeducational profile (PEP-R). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  125. Schreibman, L., Kaneko, W., & Koegel, R. (1991). Positive affect of parents of autistic children: A comparison across two teaching techniques. Behavior Therapy, 22, 479–490.Google Scholar
  126. Schroeder, G., & Baer, D. (1972). Effects of concurrent and serial training on generalized vocal imitation in retarded children. Developmental Psychology, 6, 293–301.Google Scholar
  127. Schwartz, I., Garfinkle, A., & Bauer, J. (1998). The picture exchange communication system: Communicative outcomes for young children with disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 18, 144–159.Google Scholar
  128. Shafer, E. (1994). A review of interventions to teach a mand repertoire. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 12, 53–66.Google Scholar
  129. Sheinkopf, S., & Siegel, B. (1998). Home based behavioral treatment of young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 15–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sigafoos, J., & Saggers, E. (1995). A discrete-trial approach to the functional analysis of aggressive behaviour in two boys with autism. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 20, 287–297.Google Scholar
  131. Simmons, N., & Johnston, J. (2007). Cross-cultural differences in beliefs and practices that affect the language spoken to children: Mothers with Indian and Western heritage. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 42, 445–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  133. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  134. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  135. Smith, T. (2001). Discrete trial training in the treatment of autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, 86–92.Google Scholar
  136. Smith, T., Buch, G., & Gamby, T. (2000). Parent-directed, intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 21, 297–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  138. Spradlin, J. E. (1963). Assessment of speech and language of retarded children: The parsons language sample. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. Monograph Supplement, 10, 8-31. Google Scholar
  139. Spradlin, J. E., & Siegel, G. (1982). Language training in natural and clinical environments. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 47, 2–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Stahmer, A. (1995). Teaching symbolic play skills to children with autism using pivotal response training. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 123–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Stahmer, A. (1999). Using pivotal response training to facilitate appropriate play in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 15, 29–40.Google Scholar
  142. Sundberg, M. (1983). Language. In J. L. Matson & S. E. Breuning (Eds.), Assessing the mentally retarded (pp. 285–310). New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  143. Sundberg, M. (1993). The application of establishing operations. Behavior Analyst, 16, 211–214.Google Scholar
  144. Sundberg, M., Endicott, K., & Eigenheer, P. (2000). Using intraverbal prompts to establish tacts for children with autism. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 89–104.Google Scholar
  145. Sundberg, M., & Michael, J. (2001). The benefits of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior for children with autism. Behavior Modification, 25, 698–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sundberg, M., & Partington, J. (1998). Teaching language to children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Danville, CA: Behavior Analysts, Inc.Google Scholar
  147. Thorp, D., Stahmer, A., & Schreibman, L. (1995). Effects of sociodramatic play training on children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 265–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Trembath, D., Balandin, S., & Rossi, C. (2005). Cross-cultural practice and autism. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 30, 240–242.Google Scholar
  149. Tsang, S., Shek, D., Lam, L., Tang, F., & Cheung, P. (2007). Brief report: Application of the TEACCH program on Chinese pre-school children with autism – Does culture make a difference? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 390–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Tsiouri, I., & Greer, R. (2003). Inducing vocal verbal behavior in children with severe language delays through rapid motor imitation responding. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12, 185–206.Google Scholar
  151. Twyman, J. (1995). The functional independence of impure mands and tacts of abstract stimulus properties. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 13, 1–19.Google Scholar
  152. Vigil, D., & Hwa-Froelich, D. (2004). Interaction styles in minority caregivers: Implications for intervention. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 25, 119–126.Google Scholar
  153. Wacker, D., Steege, J., Sasso, G., Berg, W., Reimers, T., Cooper, L., et al. (1990). A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 417–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Warren, S., McQuarter, R., & Rogers-Warren, A. (1984). The effects of mands and models on the speech of unresponsive language-delayed preschool children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 49, 43–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Whalen, C., & Schreibman, L. (2003). Joint attention training for children with autism using behavior modification procedures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 456–468.Google Scholar
  156. Wilder, L., Dyches, T., Obiakor, F., & Algozzine, B. (2004). Multicultural perspectives on teaching students with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19, 105–113.Google Scholar
  157. Williams, G., & Greer, R. (1993). A comparison of verbal-behavior and linguistic-communication curricula for training developmentally delayed adolescents to acquire and maintain vocal speech. Behaviorology, 1, 31–46.Google Scholar
  158. Yamamoto, J., & Mochizuki, A. (1988). Acquisition and functional analysis of manding with autistic students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 57–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Yoder, P., & Layton, T. (1988). Speech following sign language training in autistic children with minimal verbal language. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 217–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Yokoyama, K., Naoi, N., & Yamamoto, J. (2006). Teaching verbal behavior using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autistic spectrum disorders. Japanese Journal of Special Education, 43, 485–503.Google Scholar
  161. Young, J., Krantz, P., McClannahan, L., & Poulson, C. (1994). Generalized imitation and response-class formation in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 685–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Japan Agency of Science and TechnologyDepartment of Psychology, Keio UniversityMinato-KuJapan

Personalised recommendations