Cortical Effects of Aging and Hearing Loss

  • Julie R. Mendelson
  • Ramesh Rajan


Aging and hearing loss have profound consequences for the function of auditory cortex (AC). We first discuss the effects of aging on auditory processing followed by surveying consequences of deafness in the AC. In the aging effects, we begin with an overview of the changes that occur in older humans, followed by considering animal models of aging and cortical function. Next, we discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying aging effects and potential interventions that may retard or even reverse some of these age-related changes.


Hearing Loss Auditory Cortex Cochlear Implant Inferior Colliculus Voice Onset Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



auditory brainstem-evoked response


anterior auditory field


auditory cortex


primary auditory cortex


amplitude modulation


amplitude modulation following response


best frequency


congenitally deaf white cats


characteristic frequency


cochlear implant


central nervous system


excitatory frequency response area


evoked potential


event-related potential


frequency modulation


frequency modulation following response


frequency response area


γ-aminobutyric acid


glutamic acid decarboxylase


inferior colliculus


inhibitory frequency response area


interaural phase difference


local field potential


lateral superior olive




medial geniculate nucleus


masking level differences


middle-latency response


mismatch negativity


magnetic resonance imaging


non-aging hearing losses


normal early-and-chronically deafened


sinusoidal amplitude modulation


spiral ganglion cell


spontaneous activity


voice onset time


  1. Alain C, McDonald KL, Ostroff JM, and Schneider B (2001) Age-related changes in detecting a mistuned harmonic. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 109:2211–2216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alain C and McDonald L (2007) Age-related differences in neuromagnetic brain activity underlying concurrent sound perception. Journal of Neuroscience 27:1308–1314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson B and Rutledge V (1996) Age and hemisphere effects on dendritic structure. Brain 119:1983–1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aizawa N and Eggermont JJ (2006) Effects of noise-induced hearing loss at young age on voice onset time and gap-in-noise representations in adult cat primary auditory cortex. Journal of the Association for Otolaryngology 7:71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baimbridge KG, Celio MR, and Roger JH (1992) Calcium-binding proteins in the nervous system. Trends in Neuroscience 15:303–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banay-Schwartz M, Lajitha A, and Palkovits M (1989) Changes with aging in the levels of amino acids in rat CNS structural elements: 1. Glutamate and related amino acids. Neurochemistry Research 14:555–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barsz K, Ison JR, Snell KB, and Walton JP (2002) Behavioral and neural measures of auditory temporal acuity in aging humans and mice. Neurobiology of Aging 23:565–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellis TJ, Nicol T, and Kraus N (2000) Aging affects hemispheric asymmetry in the neural representation of speech sounds. Journal of Neuroscience 20:791–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett CL, Davis RT, and Miller JM (1983) Demonstration of presbycusis across repeated measures in a nonhuman primate species. Behavioral Neuroscience 97:602–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertoli S, Smurzynski J, and Probst R (2002) Temporal resolution in young and elderly subjects as measured by mismatch negativity and a psychoacoustic gap detection task. Clinical Neurophysiology 113:396–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boettcher FA, Poth EA, Mills JH, and Dubno JR (2001) The amplitude-modulation following response in young and aged human subjects. Hearing Research 153:32–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boettcher FA, Madhorta D, Poth EA, and Mills JH (2002) The frequency-modulation following response in young and aged human subjects. Hearing Research 165:10–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonham BH, Cheung SW, Godey B, and Schreiner CE (2004) Spatial organization of frequency response areas and rate/level functions in the developing AI. Journal of Neurophysiology 91:841–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown CH (1984) Directional hearing in aging rats. Experimental Aging Research 10:35–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brugge JF, Reale RA, and Wilson GF (1988) Sensitivity of auditory cortical neurons of kittens to monaural and binaural high frequency sound. Hearing Research 34:127–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calford MB, Rajan R, and Irvine DRF (1993) Rapid changes in the frequency tuning of neurons in cat auditory cortex resulting from pure-tone-induced temporary threshold shift. Neuroscience 55:953–964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Casadesus G, Shukitt-Hale B, and Joseph JA (2002) Qualitative versus quantitative caloric restriction: are they equivalent paths to successful aging? Neurobiology of Aging 23:747–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caspary DM, Milbrandt JC, and Helfert RH (1995) Central auditory aging: GABA changes in the inferior colliculus. Experimental Gerontology 30:349–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caspary DM, Holder TM, Hughes LF, Milbrandt JC, McKernan RM, and Naritoku DK (1999) Age-related changes in GABAA receptor subunit composition and function in rat auditory system. Neuroscience 93:307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caspary DM, Palombi PS, and Hughes LF (2002) GABAergic inputs shape responses to amplitude-modulated stimuli in the inferior colliculus. Hearing Research 168:163–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caspary DM, Schatterman TA, and Hughes LF (2005) Age-related changes in the inhibitory response properties of dorsal cochlear nucleus output neurons: Role of inhibitory inputs. Journal of Neuroscience 25:10952–10959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caspary DM, Ling L, Turner JG, and Hughes LF (2008) Inhibitory neurotransmission, plasticity and aging in the mammalian central auditory system. The Journal of Experimental Biology 211:1781–1791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cha CI, Lee YI, Lee EY, Park KH, and Baik SH (1997) Age-related changes of VIP, NPY and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex of aged rats. Brain Research 753:235–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cheung SW, Bonham BH, Schreiner CE, Godey B, and Copenhaver DA (2009) Realignment of interaural cortical maps in asymmetric hearing loss. Journal of Neuroscience 29:7065–7078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cobb FE, Jacobson GP, Newman CW, Kretschmer LW, and Donnelly KA (1993) Age-associated degeneration of backward masking task performance: evidence of declining temporal resolution abilities in normal listeners. Audiology 32:260–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cooper WA, Coleman JR, and Newton EH (1990) Auditory brainstem responses to tonal stimuli in young and aging rat. Hearing Research 43:171–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cranford JL, Boose M, and Moore CA (1990) Effects of aging on the precedence effect in sound localization. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 33:654–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Davids T, Valero J, Papsin BC, Harrison RV, and Gordon KA (2008a) Effects of stimulus manipulation on electrophysiological responses in pediatric cochlear implant users. Part I: duration effects. Hearing Research 244:7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davids T, Valero J, Papsin BC, Harrison RV, and Gordon KA (2008b) Effects of stimulus manipulation on electrophysiological responses of pediatric cochlear implant users. Part II: Rate effects. Hearing Research 244:15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. De Rivera C, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA, and Mendelson JR (2006) The effects of an antioxidant-enriched diet on temporal processing speed in the senescent auditory cortex. Neurobiology of Aging 27:1035–1044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. de Villers-Sadani E, Alzghoul L, Zhou X, Simpson KL, Lin RC, and Merzenich MM (2010) Recovery of functional and structural age-related changes in the rat primary auditory cortex with operant training. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:13900–13905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dietrich V, Nieschalk M, Stoll S, Rajan R, and Pantev C (2001) Cortical reorganization in patients with high frequency cochlear hearing loss. Hearing Research 158:95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dimitrijevic A, John MS, and Picton TW (2004) Auditory steady-state responses and word recognition scores in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired adults. Ear and Hearing 25:68–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dinse HR, Godde B, Reuter G, Cords SM, and Hilger T (2003) Auditory cortical plasticity under operation: reorganization of auditory cortex induced by electrical cochlear stimulation reveals adaptation to altered sensory input statistics. Speech Communication 41:201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunn N (1983) Effects of age upon auditory evoked potentials from the inferior colliculus and cortex in the guinea pig. Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 238:251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eggermont JJ (1996) Differential maturation rates for response parameters in cat primary auditory cortex. Auditory Neuroscience 2:309–327.Google Scholar
  37. Eggermont JJ and Komiya H (2000) Moderate noise trauma in juvenile cats results in profound cortical topographic map changes in adulthood. Hearing Research 142:89–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eggermont JJ and Roberts LE (2004) The neuroscience of tinnitus. Trends in Neurosciences 27:676–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fallon JB, Irvine DRF, and Shepherd RB (2008) Cochlear implants and brain plasticity. Hearing Research 238:110–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fallon JB, Irvine DRF, and Shepherd RB (2009) Cochlear implant use following neonatal deafness influences the cochleotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex in cats. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 512:101–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Feldman ML and Vaughan DW (1979) Changes in the auditory pathway with age. In: Hans SS and Coons DH (eds). Special Senses in Aging. Institute of Gerontology, Ann Arbor, pp. 143–162.Google Scholar
  42. Finlayson PG and Caspary DM (1993) Response properties in young and old Fischer-344 rat lateral superior olive neurons: a quantitative approach. Neurobiology of Aging 14:127–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fitzgibbons PJ and Gordon-Salant S (1994) Age effects on measures of auditory duration discrimination. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 37:662–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Frisina RD and Rajan R (2005) Inferior colliculus: aging and plasticity. In: Winer JA and Schreiner CE (eds). The Inferior Colliculus. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 559–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gilley PM, Sharma A, and Dorman MF (2008) Cortical reorganization in children with cochlear implants. Brain Research 1239:566–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gordon KA, Papsin BC, and Harrison RV (2005) Effects of cochlear implant use on the electrically evoked middle latency response in children. Hearing Research 204:78–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grady CL, Yu H, and Alain C (2008) Age-related differences in brain activity underlying working memory for spatial and nonspatial auditory information. Cerebral Cortex 18:189–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Green KMJ, Julyan PJ, Hastings DL, and Ramsden RT (2005) Auditory cortical activation and speech perception in cochlear implant users: effects of implant experience and duration of deafness. Hearing Research 205:184–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grube M, von Crammon DY, and Rubsamen R (2003) Inharmonicity detection. Effects of age and contralateral distractor sounds. Experimental Brain Research 153:637–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harkrider AW, Plyler PN, and Hedrick MA. (2005) Effects of age and spectral shaping on perceptual and neural representation of stop consonant stimuli. Clinical Neurophysiology 116:2153–2164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harris KC, Mills JH, and Dubno JR (2007) Electrophysiologic correlates of intensity discrimination in cortical evoked potentials of younger and older adults. Hearing Research 228:58–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harrison RV, Nagasawa A, Smith DW, Stanton SG, and Mount RJ (1991) Reorganization of auditory cortex after neonatal high frequency cochlear hearing loss. Hearing Research 54:11–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Harrison RV, Smith DW, Nagasawa A, Stanton SG, and Mount RJ (1992) Developmental plasticity of AC in cochlear haring loss: physiological and psychophysical findings. In: Cazals Y, Horner K, and Demany L (eds). Auditory Physiology and Perception. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 625–633.Google Scholar
  54. Harrison RV, Stanton SG, Ibrahim D, Nagasawa A, and Mount RJ (1993) Effects of chronic cochlear damage on threshold and frequency tuning of neurons in A1 auditory cortex. Acta Otolaryngology 519:30–35.Google Scholar
  55. Hartmann R, Shepherd RK, Heid S, and Klinke R (1997) Response of the primary auditory cortex to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in the congenitally deaf white cat. Hearing Research 112:115–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. He N, Dubno JR, and Mills JH (1998) Frequency and intensity discrimination measured in a maximum-likelihood procedure from young and aged normal-hearing subjects. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 103:553–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Heffner RS, Koay G, and Heffner HE (2001) Sound-localization acuity changes with age in C57BL/6 J mice. In: Willott JF (ed). Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heinz MG, Issa JB, and Young ED (2005) Auditory-nerve rate responses are inconsistent with common hypotheses for the neural correlates of loudness recruitment. Journal of the Association for Otolaryngology 6:91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Herzog H, Lamprecht A, Kuhn A, Roden W, Vosteen KH, and Feinendegen LE (1991) Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H2(15)O PET. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography 15:369–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hirano S, Naito Y, Okazawa H, Kojima H, Honjo I, Ishizu K, Yenokura Y, Nagahama Y, Fukuyama H, and Konishi J (1997) Cortical activation by monaural speech sound stimulation demonstrated by positron emission tomography. Experimental Brain Research 113:75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hiraumi H, Nagamine T, Morita T, Naito Y, Fukuyama H, and Ito J (2005) Right hemispheric predominance in the segregation of mistuned partials. European Journal of Neuroscience 22:1821–1824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hubka P, Kral A, and Klinke R (2004) Input desynchronization and impaired columnar activation in deprived AC revealed by independent component analysis. In: Syka J and Merzenich MM (eds). Plasticity and signal representation in the auditory system. Springer, Berlin, pp. 161–165.Google Scholar
  63. Hutson K, Durham D, Imig T, and Tucci DL (2008) Consequences of unilateral hearing loss: Cortical adjustment to unilateral deprivation. Hearing Research 237:19–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ito J, Sakakibara J, Iwasaki Y, and Yonekura Y (1993) Positron emission tomography of auditory sensation in deaf patients and patients with cochlear implants. Annals of Otology Rhinology and Laryngology 102:797–801.Google Scholar
  65. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Bielinski D, Martin A, McEwen JJ, and Bickford PC (1999) Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. The Journal of Neuroscience 19:8114–8121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Juarez-Salinas DL, Nyon S, Engle J, Navarro X, and Recanzone GH (2008) Spatial tuning of auditory cortical neurons is degraded in aged macaque monkeys. In: Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, 566.24/JJ8.Google Scholar
  67. Jucker M and Ingram DK (1997) Murine models of brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Behavioral and Brain Research 85:1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Keithley EM, Ryan AF, and Feldman ML (1992) Cochlear degeneration in aged rats of four strains. Hearing Research 59:171–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Khachaturian ZS (1984) Towards theories of brain aging. In: Kay DW and Burrows GD (eds). Handbook of Studies on Psychiatry and Old Age. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 139–165.Google Scholar
  70. Khosla D, Ponton CW, Eggermont JJ, Kwong B, Don M, and Vasama J-P (2003) Differential ear effects of profound unilateral deafness on the adult human central auditory system. Journal of the Association for Otolaryngology 4:235–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kim CS, Oh SH, and Byun SW (1997) Auditory cortical activity in cochlear implantees before and after sound stimulation using positron emission tomography. Advances in Otorhinolaryngology 52:24–26.Google Scholar
  72. Kimura M and Eggermont JJ (1999) Effects of pure tone induced hearing losses on response properties in three auditory cortical field in cat. Hearing Research 135:146–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Klinke R, Kral A, Heid S, Tillein J, and Hartmann R (1999) Recruitment of the auditory cortex in chronically deaf cats by long-term electrostimulation through a cochlear implant. Science 285:1729–1733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Klinke R, Hartmann R, Heid S, Tillein J, and Kral A (2001) Plastic changes in the auditory cortex of congenitally deaf cats following cochlear implantation. Audiology & Neuro-Otology 6:203–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Konkle DF, Beaslet DS, and Bess FH (1977) Intelligibility of time-altered speech in relation to chronological aging. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 20:108–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kotak VC, Fujisawa S, Lee FA, Karthikeyan O, Aoki C, Sanes DH. 2005. Hearing loss raises excitability in the auditory cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience 25:3908–3918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kotak VC, Takesian AE, Sanes DH (2008) Hearing loss prevents the maturation of GABAergic transmission in the auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 18:2098–2108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kral A (2007) Unimodal and cross-modal plasticity in the ‘deaf’ auditory cortex. International Journal of Audiology 46:479–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kral A and Eggermont JJ (2007) What’s to lose and what’s to learn: development under auditory deprivation, cochlear implants and limits of cortical plasticity. Brain Research Reviews 56:259–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kral A, Hartmann R, Tillein J, Heid S, and Klinke R (2000) Congenital auditory deprivation reduces synaptic activity within the auditory cortex in a layer-specific manner. Cereb Cortex 10:714–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kral A, Hartmann R, Tillein J, Heid S, and Klinke R (2001) Delayed maturation and sensitive periods in the auditory cortex. Audiology & Neuro-Otology. 6:346–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kral A, Hartman R, Tillein J, Heid S, and Klinke R (2002) Hearing after congenital deafness. Cerebral Cortex 12:797–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kral A, Tillein J, Heid S, Hartmann R, and Klinke R (2005) Postnatal cortical development in congenital auditory deprivation. Cerebral Cortex 15:552–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kuwada S, Batra R, and Maher VL (1986) Scalp potentials of normal and hearing-impaired subjects in response to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones. Hearing Research 21:179–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee HJ, Wallani T, and Mendelson JR (2002) Effects of aging on temporal processing speed in the inferior colliculus. Hearing Research 174:64–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lee HJ, Giraud AL, Kang E, Oh SH, Kang H, Kim CS, and Lee DS (2007) Cortical activity at rest predicts cochlear implantation outcome. Cerebral Cortex 17:909–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Leventhal AG, Wang Y, Pu M, Zhou Y, and Ma Y (2003) GABA and its agonists improved visual cortical function in senescent monkeys. Science 300:812–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Liang L, Lu T, and Wang X (2002) Neural representations of sinusoidal amplitude and frequency modulations in the primary AC of awake primates. Journal of Neurophysiology 87:2237–2261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ling LL, Hughes LF, and Caspary DM (2005) Age-related loss of the GABA synthetic enzyme gultamic acid dcarboxylase in rat primary auditory cortex. Neuroscience 132:1103–1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McFadden SL and Willott JF (1994) Responses of inferior colliculus neurons in C57BL/6 J mice with and without sensorineural hearing loss: effects of changing the azimuthal location of an unmasked pure-tone stimulus. Hearing Research 78:115–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McFadden SL, Campo P, Quaranta N, and Henderson D (1997) Age-related decline of auditory function in the chinchilla (Chinichilla laniger). Hearing Research 111:114–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mendelson JR and Ricketts C (2001) Age-related temporal processing speed deterioration in auditory cortex. Hearing Research 158:84–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mendelson JR and Lui B (2004) The effects of aging on temporal processing speed in the auditory system: a comparison between the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus, and auditory cortex. Hearing Research 191:21–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Middlebrooks JC, Bierer JA, and Snyder RL (2005) Cochlear implants: the view from the brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 15:488–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Milbrandt JC, Albin RL, and Caspary DM (1994) Age-related decrease in GABAB receptor binding in the fischer-344 rat inferior colliculus. Neurobiology of Aging 15:699–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Miller JL and Liberman AM (1979) Some effects of later-occurring information on the perception of stop consonant and semivowel. Perception and Psychophysics 25:457–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Moore DR, Devlin JT, Raley J, Tunbridge E, Lanary K, Floyer-Lea A, Narain C, Cohen I, Jezzard P, Burton MJ, and Matthews PM (2005) Effects of long-term unilateral hearing loss on the lateralization of fMRI measured activation in human auditory cortex. In: Syka J and Merzenich MM (eds). Plasticity and Signal Representation in the Auditory System. Springer, Berlin, pp. 335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mortensen MV, Madsen S, and Gjedde A (2005) Cortical responses to promontorial stimulation in postlingual deafness. Hearing Research 209:32–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Museik FE, Geurkink NA, Weider DJ, and Donnelly K (1984) Past, present, and future applications of the auditory middle latency response. Laryngoscope 94:1545–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Näätänen R (2000) Mismatch negativity (MMN): perspectives for application. International Journal of Psychophysiology 37:3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Näätänen R and Picton T (1987) The N1 wave of the human electric and magnetic response to sound: a review and an analysis of the component structure. Psychophysiology 24:375–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Naito Y, Okazawa H, Honjo I, Hirano S, Takahashi H, Shiomi Y, Hoji W, Kawano M, Ishizu K, and Yonekura Y (1995) Cortical activation with sound stimulation in cochlear implant users demonstrated by positron emission tomography. Brain Research Cognitive Brain Research 2:207–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Naito Y, Hirano S, Honjo I, Okazawa H, Ishizu K, Takahashi H, Fujiki N, Shiomi Y, Yonekura Y, and Konishi J (1997) Sound induced activation of auditory cortices in cochlear implant users with post- and prelingual deafness demonstrated by positron emission tomography. Acta Otolaryngology 117:490–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nishimura H, Hashikawa K, Doi K, Iwaki T, Watanabe Y, Kusuoka H, Nishimura T, and Kubo T (1999) Sign language “heard” in the auditory cortex. Nature 397:116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Noreña AJ and Eggermont JJ (2003) Changes in spontaneous neural activity immediately after an acoustic trauma: implications for neural correlates of tinnitus. Hearing Research 183:137–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Noreña AJ and Eggermont JJ (2005) Enriched acoustic environment after noise trauma reduces hearing loss and prevents cortical map reorganization. Journal of Neuroscience 25:699–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Noreña AJ, Tomita M, and Eggermont JJ (2003) Neural changes in cat auditory cortex after a transient pure-tone trauma. Journal of Neurophysiology 90:2387–2401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ochi K and Eggermont JJ (1997) Effects of quinine on neural activity in cat primary auditory cortex. Hearing Research 105:105–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Okazawa H, Naito Y, Yonekura Y, Sadato N, Hirano S, Nishizawa S, Magata Y, Ishizu K, Tamaki N, Honjo I, and Konishi J (1996) Cochlear implant efficiency in pre- and post-lingually deaf subjects. A study with H2(15)O and PET. Brain 119:1297–1306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ostroff JM, McDonald KL, Schneider BA, and Alain C (2003) Aging and the processing of sound duration in human auditory cortex. Hearing Research 181:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Palombi PS, Backoff PM, and Caspary DM (2001) Responses of young and aged Fischer 344 rat inferior colliculus neurons to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tonal stimuli. Hearing Research 153:174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pekkonen E, Huotilainen M, Virtanen J, Sinkkonen J, Rinne T, Ilmoniemi RJ, and Näätänen R (1995) Age-related functional differences between auditory cortices: a whole head MEG study. Neuroreport 6:1803–1806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Peters A and Vaughan SW (1981) Central nervous system. In: Johnson JE (ed). Aging and Cell Structure, Plenum, New York, pp. 1–34.Google Scholar
  114. Peters A, Nigro NJ, and McNally KJ (1997) A further evaluation of the effect of age on striate cortex of the rhesus monkey. Neurobiology of Aging 18:29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pichora-Fuller MK and Schneider BA (1991) Masking-level differences in the elderly: a comparison of antiphasic and time-delay dichotic conditions. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 34:1410–1422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ponton CW and Eggermont JJ (2001) Of kittens and kids: Altered cortical maturation following profound deafness and cochlear implant use. Audiology and Neurootology 6:363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Popelář J, Erre J-P, Aran J-M, and Cazals Y (1994) Plastic changes in ipsi-contralateral differences of auditory cortex and inferior colliculus evoked potentials after in the adult guinea pig. Hearing Research 72:125–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Popelář J, Grecova J, Rybalko N, and Syka J (2008) Comparison of noise-induced changes of auditory brainstem and middle latency response amplitudes in rats. Hearing Research 245:82–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ponton CW, Vasama JP, Tremblay K, Khosla D, Kwong B, and Don M (2001) Plasticity in the adult human central auditory system: evidence from late-onset profound unilateral deafness. Hearing Research 154:32–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Popelář J, Syka J, and Bemdt H (1987) Effect of noise on auditory evoked responses in awake guinea pigs. Hearing Research 26:239–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Proctor TB, Velde TM, Dayal VS, and Bhattacharyya TK (1998) Auditory brainstem response in young and old guinea pigs. American Journal of Otolaryngology 19:226–229.Google Scholar
  122. Raggio MW and Schreiner CE (1994) Neural responses in cat primary auditory cortex to electrical stimulation. I. Intensity dependence of firing rate and response latency. Journal of Neurophysiology 72:2334–2359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Raggio MW and Schreiner CE (1999). Neuronal responses in cat primary auditory cortex to electrical cochlear stimulation: III. Activation patterns in short- and long-term deafness. Journal of Neurophysiology 82:3506–3526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rajan R (1998) Receptor organ damage causes loss of cortical surround inhibition without topographic map plasticity. Nature Neuroscience 1:138–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rajan R (2001) Plasticity of excitation and inhibition in the receptive field of primary auditory cortical neurons after limited receptor organ damage. Cerebral Cortex 11:171–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rajan R (2002) Plasticity in auditory cortex: excitatory and inhibitory processes. IETE Journal of Research 49:157–170.Google Scholar
  127. Rajan R (2005) Small cochlear damage causes unmasking and plasticity in supra-threshold cortical responses. In: Syka J and Merzenich MM (eds). Plasticity and Signal Representation in the Auditory System. Springer, Berlin, pp. 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rajan R and Irvine DRF (1998) Neuronal responses across cortical field A1 in plasticity induced by peripheral auditory damage. Audiology and Neurootology 3:123–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rajan R, Irvine DRF, Wise LZ, and Heil P (1993) Effect of unilateral partial cochlear lesions on the representation of lesioned and unlesioned cochleas in primary auditory cortex of the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 338:17–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Raza A, Milbrandt JC, Arneric SP, and Casparay DM (1994) Age-related changes in brainstem auditory neurotransmitters: measures of GABA and acetylcholine function. Hearing Research 77:221–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Ricketts C, Mendelson JR, Anand B, and English R (1998) Responses to time-varying stimuli in rat auditory cortex. Hear. Res. 123:27–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ro B, Borgmann C, Draganova R, Roberts LE, and Pantev C (2000) A high-precision magnetoencephalographic study of human auditory steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 108:579–591.Google Scholar
  133. Robertson D and Irvine DRF (1989) Plasticity of frequency organization in auditory cortex of guinea pigs with partial unilateral deafness. Journal of Comparative Neurology 282:456–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ross B, Fujioka T, Tremblay KL, and Picton TW (2007) Aging in binaural hearing begins in mid-life: evidence from cortical auditory-evoked responses to changes in interaural phase. Journal of Neuroscience 27:11172–11178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Salat DH, Buckner RL, Snyder AZ, Greve DN, Diskan RSR, Busa E, Morris JC, Dale AM, and Fischl B (2004) Thinning of the cerebral cortex in aging. Cerebral Cortex 14:721–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schneider BA, Pichora-Fuller MK, Kowalchuk D, and Lamb M (1994) Gap detection and the precedence effect in young and old adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 95:980–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Schneider BA, Daneman M, Murphy DR, and Kwong See S (2000) Listening to discourse in distracting settings: the effects of aging. Psychology and Aging 15:110–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Seidman MD (2000) Effects of dietary restriction and antioxidants on presbycusis. Laryngoscope 110:727–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Seki S and Eggermont JJ (2002) Changes in cat primary auditory cortex after minor-to-moderate pure-tone induced hearing loss. Hearing Research 173:172–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sharma A and Dorman MF (2006) Central auditory development in children with cochlear implants: clinical implications. Advances in Otorhinolaryngology 64:66–88.Google Scholar
  141. Sharma A, Dorman MF, and Kral A (2005) The influence of a sensitive period on central auditory development in children with unilateral and bilateral cochlear implants. Hearing Research 203:134–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sharma A, Dorman MF, and Spahr AJ (2002) A sensitive period for the development of the central auditory system in children with cochlear implants: Implications for age of implantation. Ear and Hearing 23:532–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sharma A, Gilley PM, Dorman MF, and Baldwin R (2007) Deprivation-induced cortical reorganization in children with cochlear implants. International Journal of Audiology 46:494–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Simon H, Frisina RD, and Walton JP (2004) Age reduces response latency of mouse inferior colliculus neurons to AM sounds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 116:469–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Snyder JS and Alain C (2005) Age-related changes in neural activity associated with concurrent vowel segregation. Brain Research and Cognitive Brain Research 24:492–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sowell ER, Peterson BS, Thompson OM, Welcome SE, Henkenius AL, and Toga AW (2003) Mapping cortical change across the human life span. Nature Neuroscience 6:309–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Strouse A, Ashmead DH, Ohde RN, and Grantham DW (1998) Temporal processing in the aging auditory system. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 104:2385–2397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Su GL, Colesa DJ, and Pfingst BE (2008) Effects of deafening and cochlear implantation procedures on postimplantation psychophysical electrical detection thresholds. Hearing Research 241:64–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Suarez H, Mut F, Lago G, Silveira A, De Bellis C, Velluti R, Pedemonte M, and Svirsky M (1999) Changes in the cerebral blood flow in postlingual cochlear implant users. Acta Otolaryngologica 119:239–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sun W, Zhang L, Lu J, Yang G, Laundrie E, and Salvi RJ (2008) Noise exposure–induced enhancement of auditory cortex response and changes in gene expression. Neuroscience 156:374–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Syka J and Popelář J (1982) Noise impairment in the guinea pig. I. Changes in electrical evoked activity along the auditory pathway. Hearing Research 8:263–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Syka J, Rybalko N, and Popelář J (1994) Enhancement of the auditory cortex evoked responses in awake guinea pigs after noise exposure. Hearing Research 78:158–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Thai-Van H., Micheyl C, Noreña A, Veuillet E, Gabriel D, and Collet L (2007) Enhanced frequency discrimination in hearing-impaired individuals: a review of perceptual correlates of central neural plasticity induced by cochlear damage. Hearing Research 233:14–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Torre III P and Fowler CG (2000) Age-related changes in auditory function of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Hearing Research 142:131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Tremblay KL, Piskosz M, and Souza P. (2003) Effects of age-related hearing loss on the neural representation of speech cues. Clinical Neurophysiology 114:1332–1343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Tremblay KL, Billings C, and Rohila N (2004) Speech evoked cortical potentials: effects of age and stimulus presentation rate. Journal American Academy Audiology 15:226–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Truy E, Deiber M-P, Cinotti L, Mauguiere F, Froment J-C, and Morgon A (1995) Auditory cortex activity changes in long-term sensorineural deprivation during crude cochlear electrical stimulation: evaluation by positron emission tomography. Hearing Research 86:34–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Turner JG, Hughes LF, and Caspary DM (2005a) Affects of aging on receptive fields in rat primary AC layer V neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 94:2738–2747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Turner JG, Hughes LF, and Caspary DM (2005b) Divergent response properties of layer V neurons in rat primary auditory cortex. Hearing Research 202:129–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Vasama J-P and Makela JP (1995) Auditory pathway plasticity in adult humans after unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing Research 87:132–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Vasama J-P and Makela JP (1997) Auditory cortical responses in humans with profound unilateral sensorineural hearing loss from early childhood. Hearing Research 104:183–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Walton JP, Frisina RD, and O’Neill WE (1998) Age-related alteration in processing of temporal sound features in the auditory mid-brain of CBA mouse. Journal of Neuroscience 18:2764–2776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Walton JP, Simon H, and Frisina RD (2002) Age-related alterations in the neural coding of envelope periodicities. Journal of Neurophysiology 79:565–578.Google Scholar
  164. Wang J, Caspary D, and Salvi RJ (2000) GABA-A antagonist causes dramatic expansion of tuning in primary auditory cortex. Neuroreport 11:1137–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wang X-J (1998) Calcium coding and adaptive temporal computation in cortical pyramidal neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 79:1549–1566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Willott JF (1986) Effects of aging, hearing loss and anatomical location on thresholds if inferior colliculus neurons in C57BL/6 and CBA mice. Journal of Neurophysiology 56:93–100.Google Scholar
  167. Willott JF, Hunter KP, and Coleman JR (1988) Aging and presycusis: effects on 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in the mouse auditory brainstem in quiet. Experimental Neurology 99:615–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Willott JF Aitkin LM, and McFadden SM (1993) Plasticity of auditory cortex associated with sensorineural hearing loss in adult C57BL/6 J mice. Journal of Comparative Neurology 329:402–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Willott JF (1996) Anatomic and physiologic aging: a behavioral neuroscience perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 7:141–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Wong TP (2002) Aging of the cerebral cortex. McGill Journal of Medicine 6:104–113.Google Scholar
  171. Yin S-K, Feng Y-M, Chen Z-N, and Wang J (2008) The effect of noise-induced sloping high-frequency hearing loss on the gap-response in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex of guinea pigs. Hearing Research 239:126–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Zhang LI, Bao S, and Merzenich MM (2002) Disruption of primary auditory cortex by synchronous auditory inputs during a critical period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:2309–2314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zheng QY, Johnson KR, and Erway LC (1999) Assessment of hearing in 80 inbred strains of mice by ABR threshold analyses. Hearing Research 130:94–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research, Toronto Rehabilitation InstituteTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations