Synaptic Integration in Auditory Cortex

  • Michael Wehr
  • Raju Metherate


What does the auditory cortex do? Most would agree that it processes auditory information, but few would assert that we understand just what computations are performed by auditory cortical neurons. If we describe computation as the transformation of information from one representation to another, then which transformations are accomplished by the auditory cortex remains an open question at the heart of the discipline.


Receptive Field Auditory Cortex Synaptic Depression Synaptic Inhibition Synaptic Mechanism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





primary auditory cortex


afterhyperpolarization potential


characteristic frequency


excitatory postsynaptic potentials


frequency modulation




γ-aminobutyric acid


local field potential


muscarinic acetylcholine receptor


ventral division of the medial geniculate body


nicotinic acetylcholine receptor




positron emission tomography


sound pressure level


spectrotemporal receptive field


  1. Aitkin LM and Webster WR (1972) Medial geniculate body of the cat: organization and responses to tonal stimuli of neurons in ventral division. Journal of Neurophysiology 35:365–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Atzori M, Kanold PO, Pineda JC, Flores-Hernandez J, and Paz RD (2005) Dopamine prevents muscarinic-induced decrease of glutamate release in the auditory cortex. Neuroscience 134:1153–1165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atzori M, Lei S, Evans DI, Kanold PO, Phillips-Tansey E, McIntyre O, and McBain CJ (2001) Differential synaptic processing separates stationary from transient inputs to the auditory cortex. Nature Neuroscience 4:1230–1237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakin JS, Kwon MC, Masino SA, Weinberger NM, and Frostig RD (1996) Suprathreshold auditory cortex activation visualized by intrinsic signal optical imaging. Cerebral Cortex 6:120–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bao S, Chan VT, Zhang LI, and Merzenich MM (2003) Suppression of cortical representation through backward conditioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:1405–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borg-Graham LJ, Monier C, and Fregnac Y (1998) Visual input evokes transient and strong shunting inhibition in visual cortical neurons. Nature 393:369–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bringuier V, Chavane F, Glaeser L, and Fregnac Y (1999) Horizontal propagation of visual activity in the synaptic integration field of area 17 neurons. Science 283:695–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brosch M and Schreiner CE (1997) Time course of forward masking tuning curves in cat primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 77:923–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brosch M and Schreiner CE (2000) Sequence sensitivity of neurons in cat primary auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 10:1155–1167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brosch M, Schulz A, and Scheich H (1999) Processing of sound sequences in macaque auditory cortex: response enhancement. Journal of Neurophysiology 82:1542–1559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brugge JF, Dubrovsky NA, Aitkin LM, and Anderson DJ (1969) Sensitivity of single neurons in auditory cortex of cat to binaural tonal stimulation; effects of varying interaural time and intensity. Journal of Neurophysiology 32:1005–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Budinger E, Heil P, and Scheich H (2000) Functional organization of auditory cortex in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). IV. Connections with anatomically characterized subcortical structures. European Journal of Neuroscience 12:2452–2474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Calford MB and Semple MN (1995) Monaural inhibition in cat auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 73:1876–1891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Calford MB, Webster WR, and Semple MM (1983) Measurement of frequency selectivity of single neurons in the central auditory pathway. Hearing Research 11:395–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carandini M, Heeger DJ, and Senn W (2002) A synaptic explanation of suppression in visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 22:10053–10065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Caspary DM, Backoff PM, Finlayson PG, and Palombi PS (1994) Inhibitory inputs modulate discharge rate within frequency receptive fields of anteroventral cochlear nucleus neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 72:2124–2133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chattopadhyay S, Xue B, Collins D, Pichika R, Bagnera R, Leslie FM, Christian BT, Shi B, Narayanan TK, Potkin SG, and Mukherjee J (2005) Synthesis and evaluation of nicotine alpha4beta2 receptor radioligand, 5-(3'-18F-fluoropropyl)-3-(2-(S)-pyrrolidinylmethoxy)pyridine, in rodents and PET in nonhuman primate. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 46:130–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chimoto S, Kitama T, Qin L, Sakayori S, and Sato Y (2002) Tonal response patterns of primary auditory cortex neurons in alert cats. Brain Research 934:34–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chung S, Li X, and Nelson SB (2002) Short-term depression at thalamocortical synapses contributes to rapid adaptation of cortical sensory responses in vivo. Neuron 34:437–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarke PB (2004) Nicotinic modulation of thalamocortical neurotransmission. Progress in Brain Research 145:253–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clarke PB, Pert CB, and Pert A (1984) Autoradiographic distribution of nicotine receptors in rat brain. Brain Research 323:390–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clarke PB, Schwartz RD, Paul SM, Pert CB, and Pert A (1985) Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of [3H]acetylcholine, [3H]nicotine, and [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin. Journal of Neuroscience 5:1307–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Couturier S, Bertrand D, Matter JM, Hernandez MC, Bertrand S, Millar N, Valera S, Barkas T, and Ballivet M (1990) A neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha 7) is developmentally regulated and forms a homo-oligomeric channel blocked by a-BTX. Neuron 5:847–856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cox CL, Metherate R, and Ashe JH (1994) Modulation of cellular excitability in neocortex: muscarinic receptor and second messenger-mediated actions of acetylcholine. Synapse 16:123–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Creutzfeldt O, Hellweg FC, and Schreiner C (1980) Thalamocortical transformation of responses to complex auditory stimuli. Experimental Brain Research 39:87–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Debarbieux F, Brunton J, and Charpak S (1998) Effect of bicuculline on thalamic activity: a direct blockade of IAHP in reticularis neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 79:2911–2918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Denham SL and Denham MJ (2001). An investigation into the role of cortical synaptic depression in auditory processing. In: Wermter S, Austin JL, and Willshaw D (eds). Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer, New York, pp. 494–506.Google Scholar
  28. DeWeese MR and Zador AM (2006) Non-Gaussian membrane potential dynamics imply sparse, synchronous activity in auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 26:12206–12218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DeWeese MR, Wehr M, and Zador AM (2003) Binary spiking in auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 23:7940–7949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ding YS, Fowler JS, Logan J, Wang GJ, Telang F, Garza V, Biegon A, Pareto D, Rooney W, Shea C, Alexoff D, Volkow ND, and Vocci F (2004) 6-[18F]Fluoro-A-85380, a new PET tracer for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: studies in the human brain and in vivo demonstration of specific binding in white matter. Synapse 53:184–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dykes RW, Landry P, Metherate R, and Hicks TP (1984) Functional role for GABA in primary somatosensory cortex: shaping receptive fields of cortical neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 52:1066–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Easwaramoorthy B, Pichika R, Collins D, Potkin SG, Leslie FM, and Mukherjee J (2007) Effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on the binding of nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor PET radiotracer, (18)F-nifene: A measure of acetylcholine competition. Synapse 61:29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Edeline JM, Hars B, Maho C, and Hennevin E (1994) Transient and prolonged facilitation of tone-evoked responses induced by basal forebrain stimulations in the rat auditory cortex. Experimental Brain Research 97:373–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Edeline JM (2003) The thalamo-cortical auditory receptive fields: regulation by the states of vigilance, learning and the neuromodulatory systems. Experimental Brain Research 153:554–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Edeline JM, Dutrieux G, Manunta Y, and Hennevin E (2001) Diversity of receptive field changes in auditory cortex during natural sleep. European Journal of Neuroscience 14:1865–1880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eggermont JJ (1996) How homogeneous is cat primary auditory cortex? Evidence from simultaneous single-unit recordings. Auditory Neuroscience 2:79–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eggermont JJ (1999) The magnitude and phase of temporal modulation transfer functions in cat auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 19:2780–2788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Elhilali M, Fritz JB, Klein DJ, Simon JZ, and Shamma SA (2004) Dynamics of precise spike timing in primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 24:1159–1172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foeller E, Vater M, and Kössl M (2001) Laminar analysis of inhibition in the gerbil primary auditory cortex. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 2:279–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Freeman TC, Durand S, Kiper DC, and Carandini M (2002) Suppression without inhibition in visual cortex. Neuron 35:759–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fritz J, Shamma S, Elhilali M, and Klein D (2003) Rapid task-related plasticity of spectrotemporal receptive fields in primary auditory cortex. Nature Neuroscience 6:1216–1223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Galvan VV, Chen J, and Weinberger NM (2001) Long-term frequency tuning of local field potentials in the auditory cortex of the waking guinea pig. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 2:199–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gil Z, Connors BW, and Amitai Y (1997) Differential regulation of neocortical synapses by neuromodulators and activity. Neuron 19:679–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haj-Dahmane S and Andrade R (1996) Muscarinic activation of a voltage-dependent cation nonselective current in rat association cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 16:3848–3861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Halliwell JV and Adams PR (1982) Voltage-clamp analysis of muscarinic excitation in hippocampal neurons. Brain Research 250:71–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hasselmo ME (1999) Neuromodulation: acetylcholine and memory consolidation. Trends in Cognitive Science 3:351–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hasselmo ME (2006) The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 16:710–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heil P and Irvine DRF (1997) First-spike timing of auditory-nerve fibers and comparison with auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 78:2438–2454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Heil P and Irvine DRF (1998) The posterior field P of cat auditory cortex: coding of envelope transients. Cerebral Cortex 8:125–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heil P, Langner G, and Scheich H (1992) Processing of frequency-modulated stimuli in the chick auditory cortex analogue: evidence for topographic representations and possible mechanisms of rate and directional sensitivity. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 171:583–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hess A and Scheich H (1996) Optical and FDG mapping of frequency-specific activity in auditory cortex. Neuroreport 7:2643–2647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hicks TP, Metherate R, Landry P, and Dykes RW (1986) Bicuculline-induced alterations of response properties in functionally identified ventroposterior thalamic neurones. Experimental Brain Research 63:248–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hind JE, Goldberg JM, Greenwood DG, and Rose JE (1963) Some discharge characteristics of single neurons in the inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Timing of the discharges and observations on binaural stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology 26:321–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Horikawa J, Hosokawa Y, Kubota M, Nasu M, and Taniguchi I (1996) Optical imaging of spatiotemporal patterns of glutamatergic excitation and GABAergic inhibition in the guinea-pig auditory cortex in vivo. Journal of Physiology (London) 497:629–638.Google Scholar
  55. Hounsgaard J (1978) Presynaptic inhibitory action of acetylcholine in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Experimental Neurology 62:787–797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hsieh CY, Cruikshank SJ, and Metherate R (2000) Differential modulation of auditory thalamocortical and intracortical synaptic transmission by cholinergic agonist. Brain Research 880:51–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Imig TJ and Morel A (1984) Topographic and cytoarchitectonic organization of thalamic neurons related to their targets in low-, middle-, and high-frequency representations in cat auditory cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 227:511–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ji W and Suga N (2007) Serotonergic modulation of plasticity of the auditory cortex elicited by fear conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience 27:4910–4918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kaur S, Lazar R, and Metherate R (2004) Intracortical pathways determine breadth of subthreshold frequency receptive fields in primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 91:2551–2567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kawai H, Lazar R, and Metherate R (2007) Nicotinic control of axon excitability regulates thalamocortical transmission. Nature Neuroscience 10:1168–1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kilgard MP and Merzenich MM (1998) Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity. Science 279:1714–1718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kilgard MP and Merzenich MM (1999) Distributed representation of spectral and temporal information in rat primary auditory cortex. Hearing Research 134:16–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kimura A, Donishi T, Sakoda T, Hazama M, and Tamai Y (2003) Auditory thalamic nuclei projections to the temporal cortex in the rat. Neuroscience 117:1003–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kitzes LM, Gibson MM, Rose JE, and Hind JE (1978) Initial discharge latency and threshold considerations for some neurons in cochlear nuclear complex of the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 41:1165–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Krnjevic K, Pumain R, and Renaud L (1971) The mechanism of excitation by acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex. Journal of Physiology (London) 215:247–268.Google Scholar
  66. Kurt S, Crook JM, Ohl FW, Scheich H, and Schulze H (2006) Differential effects of iontophoretic in vivo application of the GABAA-antagonists bicuculline and gabazine in sensory cortex. Hearing Research 212:224–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lambe EK, Picciotto MR, and Aghajanian GK (2003) Nicotine induces glutamate release from thalamocortical terminals in prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:216–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Langner G and Schreiner CE (1988) Periodicity coding in the inferior colliculus of the cat. I. Neuronal mechanisms. Journal of Neurophysiology 60:1799–1822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lavine N, Reuben M, and Clarke PBS (1997) A population of nicotine receptors is associated with thalamocortical afferents in the adult rat: laminar and areal analysis. Journal of Comparative Neurology 380:175–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. LeBeau FEN, Malmierca MS, and Rees A (2001) Iontophoresis in vivo demonstrates a key role for GABAA and glycinergic inhibition in shaping frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus of guinea pig. Journal of Neuroscience 21:7303–7312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lee SM, Friedberg MH, and Ebner FF (1994) The role of GABA-mediated inhibition in the rat ventral posterior medial thalamus. II. Differential effects of GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists on responses of VPM neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 71:1716–1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Linden JF, Liu RC, Sahani M, Schreiner CE, and Merzenich MM (2003) Spectrotemporal structure of receptive fields in areas AI and AAF of mouse auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 90:2660–2675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lui B and Mendelson JR (2003) Frequency modulated sweep responses in the medial geniculate nucleus. Experimental Brain Research 153:550–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Machens CK, Wehr MS, and Zador AM (2004) Linearity of cortical receptive fields measured with natural sounds. Journal of Neuroscience 24:1089–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Madison DV, Lancaster B, and Nicoll RA (1987) Voltage clamp analysis of cholinergic action in the hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience 7:733–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. McCormick DA and Prince DA (1986) Mechanism of action of acetylcholine in the guinea-pig cerebral cortex in vitro. Journal of Physiology (London) 375:169–194.Google Scholar
  77. McKenna TM, Ashe JH, and Weinberger NM (1989) Cholinergic modulation of frequency receptive fields in auditory cortex: I. Frequency-specific effects of muscarinic agonists. Synapse 4:30–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mendelson JR and Cynader MS (1985) Sensitivity of cat primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons to the direction and rate of frequency modulation. Brain Research 327:331–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Metherate R (2004) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in sensory cortex. Learning & Memory 11:50–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Metherate R and Ashe JH (1993) Ionic flux contributions to neocortical slow waves and nucleus basalis-mediated activation: whole-cell recordings in vivo. Journal of Neuroscience 13:5312–5323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Metherate R and Ashe JH (1994) Facilitation of an NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP by paired-pulse stimulation in rat neocortex via depression of GABAergic IPSPs. Journal of Physiology (London) 481:331–348.Google Scholar
  82. Metherate R, Tremblay N, and Dykes RW (1988) The effects of acetylcholine on response properties of cat somatosensory cortical neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 59:1231–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Metherate R, Cox CL, and Ashe JH (1992) Cellular bases of neocortical activation: modulation of neural oscillations by the nucleus basalis and endogenous acetylcholine. Journal of Neuroscience 12:4701–4711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller LM, Escabí MA, and Schreiner CE (2001) Feature selectivity and interneuronal cooperation in the thalamocortical system. Journal of Neuroscience 21:8136–8144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Miller LM, Escabi MA, Read HL, and Schreiner CE (2002) Spectrotemporal receptive fields in the lemniscal auditory thalamus and cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 87:516–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Morley BJ and Happe HK (2000) Cholinergic receptors: dual roles in transduction and plasticity. Hearing Research 147:104–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Müller CM and Scheich H (1988) Contribution of GABAergic inhibition to the response characteristics of auditory units in the avian forebrain. Journal of Neurophysiology 59:1673–1689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Nelken I and Versnel H (2000) Responses to linear and logarithmic frequency-modulated sweeps in ferret primary auditory cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 12:549–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Norena A and Eggermont JJ (2002) Comparison between local field potentials and unit cluster activity in primary auditory cortex and anterior auditory field in the cat. Hearing Research 166:202–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Oertel D (1999) The role of timing in the brain stem auditory nuclei of vertebrates. Annual Review of Physiology 61:497–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ohl FW, Schulze H, Scheich H, and Freeman WJ (2000) Spatial representation of frequency-modulated tones in gerbil auditory cortex revealed by epidural electrocorticography. Journal of Physiology (Paris) 94:549–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ojima H and Murakami K (2002) Intracellular characterization of suppressive responses in supragranular pyramidal neurons of cat primary auditory cortex in vivo. Cerebral Cortex 12:1079–1091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Okamoto H, Stracke H, Wolters CH, Schmael F, and Pantev C (2007) Attention improves population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 27:10383–10390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Oswald AM, Schiff ML, and Reyes AD (2006) Synaptic mechanisms underlying auditory processing. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 16:371–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Palombi PS and Caspary DM (1992) GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline alters response properties of posteroventral cochlear nucleus neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 67:738–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Parkinson D, Kratz KE, and Daw NW (1988) Evidence for a nicotinic component to the actions of acetylcholine in cat visual cortex. Experimental Brain Research 73:553–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Phillips DP and Hall SE (1990) Response timing constraints on the cortical representation of sound time structure. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 88:1403–1411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Phillips DP and Hall SE (1992) Multiplicity of inputs in the afferent path to cat auditory cortex neurons revealed by tone-on-tone masking. Cerebral Cortex 2:425–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Phillips DP, Hall SE, and Hollett JL (1989) Repetition rate and signal level effects on neuronal responses to brief tone pulses in cat auditory cortex. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 85:2537–2549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Phillips DP, Mendelson JR, Cynader MS, and Douglas RM (1985) Responses of single neurones in cat auditory cortex to time-varying stimuli: frequency-modulated tones of narrow excursion. Experimental Brain Research 58:443–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pickles JO (1988) An Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing. Academic Press, London, San Diego.Google Scholar
  102. Polley DB, Steinberg EE, and Merzenich MM (2006) Perceptual learning directs auditory cortical map reorganization through top-down influences. Journal of Neuroscience 26:4970–4982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Polley DB, Heiser MA, Blake DT, Schreiner CE, and Merzenich MM (2004) Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:16351–16356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Prusky GT, Shaw C, and Cynader MS (1987) Nicotine receptors are located on lateral geniculate nucleus terminals in cat visual cortex. Brain Research 412:131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Recanzone GH, Schreiner CE, and Merzenich MM (1993) Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience 13:87–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rhode WS and Smith PH (1986) Encoding timing and intensity in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 56:261–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. de Ribaupierre F, Goldstein MH, and Yeni-Komshian G (1972) Intracellular study of the cat's primary auditory cortex. Brain Research 48:185–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rogers SW, Gahring LC, Collins AC, and Marks M (1998) Age-related changes in neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit α4 expression are modified by long-term nicotine administration. Journal of Neuroscience 18:4825–4832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Romanski LM and LeDoux JE (1993) Organization of rodent auditory cortex: anterograde transport of PHA-L from MGv to temporal neocortex. Cerebral Cortex 3:499–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rose HJ and Metherate R (2005) Auditory thalamocortical transmission is reliable and temporally precise. Journal of Neurophysiology 94:2019–2030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sahin M, Bowen WD, and Donoghue JP (1992) Location of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic and μ-opiate receptors in rat cerebral neocortex: evidence from thalamic and cortical lesions. Brain Research 579:135–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sarter M, Givens B, and Bruno JP (2001) The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: where top-down meets bottom-up. Brain Research Reviews 35:146–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schreiner CE, Read HL, and Sutter ML (2000) Modular organization of frequency integration in primary auditory cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 23:501–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schulze H and Langner G (1999) Auditory cortical responses to amplitude modulations with spectra above frequency receptive fields: evidence for wide spectral integration. Journal of Comparative Physiology [A] 185:493–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Segal M (1982) Multiple action of acetylcholine at a muscarinic receptor studied in the rat hippocampal slice. Brain Research 246:77–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Segal M (1989) Presynaptic cholinergic inhibition in hippocampal cultures. Synapse 4:305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Séguéla P, Wadiche J, Dineley-Miller K, Dani JA, and Patrick JW (1993) Molecular cloning, functional properties, and distribution of rat brain α7: a nicotinic cation channel highly permeable to calcium. Journal of Neuroscience 13:596–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sillito AM (1975) The contribution of inhibitory mechanisms to the receptive field properties of neurones in the striate cortex of the cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 250:305–329.Google Scholar
  119. Sillito AM and Kemp JA (1983) Cholinergic modulation of the functional organization of the cat visual cortex. Brain Research 289:143–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sivaramakrishnan S, Sterbing-D’Angelo SJ, Filipovic B, D’Angelo WR, Oliver DL, and Kuwada S (2004) GABAA synapses shape neuronal responses to sound intensity in the inferior colliculus. Journal of Neuroscience 24:5031–5043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Smits E, Gordon DC, Witte S, Rasmusson DD, and Zarzecki P (1991) Synaptic potentials evoked by convergent somatosensory and corticocortical inputs in raccoon somatosensory cortex: substrates for plasticity. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:688–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Soto G, Kopell N, and Sen K (2006) Network architecture, receptive fields, and neuromodulation: computational and functional implications of cholinergic modulation in primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 96:2972–2983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stark H and Scheich H (1997) Dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission systems are differentially involved in auditory cortex learning: a long-term microdialysis study of metabolites. Journal of Neurochemistry 68:691–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sutter ML and Schreiner CE (1995) Topography of intensity tuning in cat primary auditory cortex: single-neuron versus multiple-neuron recordings. Journal of Neurophysiology 73:190–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sutter ML and Loftus WC (2003) Excitatory and inhibitory intensity tuning in auditory cortex: evidence for multiple inhibitory mechanisms. Journal of Neurophysiology 90:2629–2947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sutter ML, Schreiner CE, McLean M, O'Connor KN, and Loftus WC (1999) Organization of inhibitory frequency receptive fields in cat primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 82:2358–2371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Tan AY, Zhang LI, Merzenich MM, and Schreiner CE (2004) Tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances of primary auditory cortex neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 92:630–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tan AYY, Atencio CA, Polley DB, Merzenich MM, and Schreiner CE (2007) Unbalanced synaptic inhibition can create intensity-tuned auditory cortex neurons. Neuroscience 146:449–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ter-Mikaelian M, Sanes DH, and Semple MN (2007) Transformation of temporal properties between auditory midbrain and cortex in the awake Mongolian gerbil. Journal of Neuroscience 27:6091–6102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tian B and Rauschecker JP (2004) Processing of frequency-modulated sounds in the lateral auditory belt cortex of the rhesus monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 92:2993–3013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Trussell LO (1999) Synaptic mechanisms for coding timing in auditory neurons. Annual Review of Physiology 61:477–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Trussell LO (2002) Modulation of transmitter release at giant synapses of the auditory system. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12:400–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ulanovsky N, Las L, Farkas D, and Nelken I (2004) Multiple time scales of adaptation in auditory cortex neurons. Journal of Neuroscience 24:10440–10453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Valentino RJ and Dingledine R (1981) Presynaptic inhibitory effect of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience 1:784–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Velenovsky DS, Cetas JS, Price RO, Sinex DG, and McMullen NT (2003) Functional subregions in primary auditory cortex defined by thalamocortical terminal arbors: an electrophysiological and anterograde labeling study. Journal of Neuroscience 23:308–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Verbny YI, Erdelyi F, Szabo G, and Banks MI (2006) Properties of a population of GABAergic cells in murine auditory cortex weakly excited by thalamic stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology 96:3194–3208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Volkov IO and Galazjuk AV (1991) Formation of spike response to sound tones in cat auditory cortex neurons: interaction of excitatory and inhibitory effects. Neuroscience 43:307–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wang J, Caspary D, and Salvi RJ (2000) GABA-A antagonist causes dramatic expansion of tuning in primary auditory cortex. Neuroreport 11:1137–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wang J, McFadden SL, Caspary D, and Salvi R (2002) Gamma-aminobutyric acid circuits shape response properties of auditory cortex neurons. Brain Research 944:219–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wang X, Lu T, Snider RK, and Liang L (2005) Sustained firing in auditory cortex evoked by preferred stimuli. Nature 435:341–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wehr M and Zador AM (2003) Balanced inhibition underlies tuning and sharpens spike timing in auditory cortex. Nature 426:442–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wehr M and Zador AM (2005) Synaptic mechanisms of forward suppression in rat auditory cortex. Neuron 47:437–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Weinberger NM (2004) Specific long-term memory traces in primary auditory cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5:279–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Whitfield IC and Evans EF (1965) Responses of auditory cortical neurons to stimuli of changing frequency. Journal of Neurophysiology 28:655–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Winer JA, Sally SL, Larue DT, and Kelly JB (1999) Origins of medial geniculate body projections to physiologically defined zones of rat primary auditory cortex. Hearing Research 130:42–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wu GK, Li P, Tao HW, and Zhang LI (2006) Nonmonotonic synaptic excitation and imbalanced inhibition underlying cortical intensity tuning. Neuron 52:705–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Xie R, Gittelman JX, and Pollak GD (2007) Rethinking tuning: in vivo whole-cell recordings of the inferior colliculus in awake bats. Journal of Neuroscience 27:9469–9481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zhang LI, Tan AY, Schreiner CE, and Merzenich MM (2003) Topography and synaptic shaping of direction selectivity in primary auditory cortex. Nature 424:201–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zoli M, Léna C, Picciotto MR, and Changeux J-P (1998) Identification of four classes of brain nicotinic receptors using β2 mutant mice. Journal of Neuroscience 18:4461–4472.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyInstitute of Neuroscience, University of OregonEugeneUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurobiology and BehaviorCenter for Hearing Research, University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations