An Overview of Active Materials Utilized in Smart Structures



This chapter provides a brief overview of working principles, physical properties, constitutive models and the practical applications of a few select active materials as the building blocks of many smart structures. More specifically, the following active materials are discussed in this chapter: piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials, electrorheological and magnetorheological fluids, electrostrictive and magnetostrictive materials, and finally shape memory alloys (SMA). In order not to disturb the focus of the book, only selective but essential materials are reviewed in this chapter. We refer interested readers to cited references and other dedicated books on smart materials and structures (e.g., Srinviasan and MacFarland 2001; Culshaw 1996; Gandhi and Thompson 1992; Banks et al. 1996; Clark et al. 1998; Suleman 2001; Leo 2007; Preumont 2002; Janocha 1999; Tzou and Anderson 1992; Gabert and Tzou 2001), vibration control (Moheimani and Fleming 2006; Gawronski 2004; Tao and Kokotovic 1996), sensors and actuators (Busch-Vishniac 1999) and piezoelectric (Yang 2005; Moheimani and Fleming 2006; Ballas 2007).

While studying these and other active materials, piezoelectric materials stand out as the most commonly used active materials in many mechatronic and vibration-control systems, the areas that are of great importance to the subject of this book. Consequently, two separate chapters are dedicated to these materials and present, in much more detail, the concept of piezoelectricity and constitutive models of piezoelectric materials along with their practical applications as sensors and actuators (Chap. 6 and 7).


Constitutive Model Shape Memory Alloy Piezoelectric Material Strontium Titanate Barium Strontium Titanate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering373 Snell Engineering Center Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA

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