Piezoelectric-Based Nanomechanical Cantilever Sensors
This chapter provides a relatively general overview of piezoelectric-based nano- mechanical cantilever sensors (NMCS) with their applications in many cantilever-based imaging and manipulation systems such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and its varieties. Some new concepts in modeling these systems are also introduced along with highlighting the issues related to nonlinear effects at such small scale, the Poisson’s effect, and piezoelectric materials nonlinearity. More specifically, both linear and nonlinear models of piezoelectric NMCS are presented with their applications in biological and ultrasmall mass sensing and detection.
It might be worth noting that a comprehensive modeling and treatment of these systems including both linear and nonlinear vibration analyses, system identification, as well as practical applications in ultrasmall mass sensing, laser-free imaging, and nanoscale manipulation and positioning, will appear in a new book by the author (Jalili in press). In order to avoid potential overlaps while also keeping this chapter focused, only a small part of the aforementioned book is presented here with a major emphasis on piezoelectric-based nanomechanical cantilever sensors.
KeywordsPiezoelectric Material Surface Stress Torsional Vibration Piezoelectric Layer Effective Nonlinearity
- Afshari M, Jalili N (2008) Nanomechanical cantilever biosensors: Conceptual design, recent developments and practical implementation, chapter 13 of biomedical applications of vibration and acoustics for imaging and characterization. ASME Press 13:353–374Google Scholar
- Braun T, Barwich V, Ghatkesar MK, Bredekamp AH, Gerber C, Hegner M, Lang HP (2005) Micromechanical mass sensors for biomolecular detection in a physiological environment. Phys Rev 72:031907Google Scholar
- Gupta A, Akin D, Bashir A (2004a) Detection of bacterial cells and antibodies using surface micromachined thin silicon cantilever resonators. J Vac Sci Technol 32(4):2785–2791Google Scholar
- Kirstein K-U, Li Y, Zimmermann M, Vancura C, Volden T, Song WH, Lichtenberg J, Hierlemannn A (2005) Cantilever-based biosensors in CMOS technology. Proceedings of the design, automation and test in Europe conference and exhibition (DATE’05):1340–1341Google Scholar
- Lang HP, Berger R, Battiston F, Ramseyer J-P, Meyer E, Andreoli C, Brugger J, Vettiger P, Despont M, Mezzacasa T, Scandella L, Güntherodt H-J, Gerber Ch, Gimzewski JK (1998) A chemical sensor based on a micromechanical cantilever array for the identification of gases and vapors. Appl Phys A 66(7):S61–S64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lu P, Shen F, O’Shea SJ, Lee KH, Ng TY (2001) Analysis of surface effects on mechanical properties of microcantilevers. Mater Phys Mech 4:51–55Google Scholar
- Mahmoodi SN, Jalili N (2008) Coupled flexural-torsional nonlinear vibrations of piezoelectrically-actuated microcantilevers with application to friction force microscopy. ASME J Vib Acoust 130(6) 061003:1–10Google Scholar
- Meirovitch L (1997) Principles and techniques of vibrations. Prentice Hall, IncGoogle Scholar
- Onran AG, Degertekin AG, Hadimioglu B, Sulchek T, Quate CF (2002) Actuation of atomic force microscope cantilevers in fluids using acoustic radiation pressure. Fifteenth IEEE international micro electro mechanical systems conference, Las Vegas, NevadaGoogle Scholar
- Ziegler C (2004) Cantilever-based biosensors. Anal Bioanal Chem 379:946–959Google Scholar