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Use of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Biological Applications

  • Craig A. Grimes
  • Gopal K. Mor
Chapter

Abstract

Protein immobilization on solid substrates underlies various experimental approaches in biology and biophysics [1–5]. Immobilized proteins are instrumental in identifying protein–protein, protein–DNA, and protein–molecule interactions for a variety of diagnostic and profiling purposes [5–9]. The support material must have active surface areas for protein binding, and good mechanical, thermal, and chemical stability. Bioelectrocatalytic systems allow the sensitive detection of affinity-based interactions between complementary molecule pairs [10] through electrical signals related to electrochemical reactions, while amperometric biosensors offer a convenient and potential application in the area of biomedical diagnosis as well as environmental analysis [11–13]. In this chapter, we consider the use of co-immobilized TiO2 nanotube arrays as a biosensor platform for H2O2 and glucose detection.

Titanium and its alloys are widely used as implants due to its high strength, biocompatibility and high level of hemocompatibility [14, 15]. The high degree of Ti alloy biocompatibility is due to their ability to form stable and dense thin oxide layers in most environments. It is believed that thicker and more stable TiO2-based oxide surfaces are generally favorable for surface bioactivity [16, 17]. Spark anodization is commonly used to increase the biocompatibility of titanium and its alloys, with the process leading to the formation of a disordered oxide structure several hundred nanometers thick [18, 19]. In contrast to this approach, the electrochemical formation of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays offer a unique surface for biomedical implants that offers both biocompatibility as well as drug eluting properties. We review the use of TiO2 nanotube arrays to enhance apatite formation, cell activity, drug elution, and the application of TiO2 nanotubular membranes for protein separation and drug delivery.

Keywords

Simulated Body Fluid Simulated Body Fluid Solution Sodium Titanate Magnetoelastic Sensor Supersaturated Calcium Phosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering DepartmentPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Materials Research InstitutePennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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