Advertisement

United States: Social Welfare Policy and Privatization in Post-industrial Society

  • Michael Reisch
Chapter

It is widely acknowledged that the US welfare state evolved differently from those of other industrialized nations (Karger & Stoesz, 2002; Chatterjee, 1996). Pragmatic, rather than ideological, in origin, it relied less on the national government and more on the private sector than its European counterparts (Midgley, 1997). In comparison to the welfare states of Western Europe, the US version had more limited goals and never developed a national network of services or a fully integrated income maintenance system. Other unique features of the US welfare system include decentralized government intervention and a critical role for the nonprofit sector, as both funder and provider of services (Young, 1999). The US social welfare system has also frequently been used to maintain prevailing racial, gender, and class inequalities (Reisch, 2005; Schram et al., 2003; Schram et al., 2007).

Keywords

Social Welfare Welfare State Welfare System Nonprofit Sector Welfare Reform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abramovitz, M. (1998). Regulating the lives of women: Social welfare policy from colonial times to the present, 2nd ed. Boston, MA: South End Press.Google Scholar
  2. Abramovitz, M. (2005). The largely untold story of welfare reform and the human services, Social Work, 50(2), 175–186.Google Scholar
  3. Afshar, H., & Barrientos, S. (Eds.) (1999). Women, globalization, and fragmentation in the developing world, New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, J. (1999). The impact of devolution on nonprofits: A multiphase study of social service organizations, Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 10(1), 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander, J., Nank, R. & Stivers, C. (1999). Implications of welfare reform: Do nonprofit survival strategies threaten civil society? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 26(4), 452–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen, K., & Kirby, M. (2000). Unfinished business: Why cities matter to welfare reform. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Ammerman, N. T. (2005). Pillars of faith: American congregations and their partners, Berkeley. CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  8. Axinn, J. & Stern, M. (2008). Social welfare: A history of the American response to need, 7th ed., Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, U. (2000). What is Globalisation? Cambridge, Polity Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bernstein, J. (2007, December 13). Updated CBO data reveal unprecedented increase in inequality, Economic Policy Institute, http://www.epi.org.
  11. Bischoff, U. M. & Reisch, M. (2000). The impact of welfare reform on community-based non-profit organizations: Implications for policy, practice, and education, Journal of Community Practice, 8(4), 69–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bobo, L. & Smith, R. (1998). From Jim Crow racism to laissez-faire racism: An essay on the transformation of racial attitudes in America. In W. Katkin, N. Landsman, & A. Tyree, eds., Beyond pluralism: The conception of groups and group identities in America, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bread for the World. (1995). Hunger 1995: The causes of hunger. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  14. Broadbent, E. (1998). The challenge to economic and social rights: Thoughts on citizenship in the welfare state in the North Atlantic world, Global Society, 12(1), 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, M. (1999). Race, money, and the American welfare state, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Chatterjee, P. K. (1996). Approaches to the welfare state. Washington, DC: NASW Press.Google Scholar
  17. Chaves, M. (2004). Congregations in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Chow, J. C., Johnson, M. A., & Austin, M. J. (2005). The status of low-income neighborhoods in the post-welfare environment: Mapping the relationship between poverty and place. Journal of Health and Social Policy, 21(1), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clawson, R., & Trice, R. (2000). Poverty as we know it: Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64(4), 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cnaan, R., Wineburg, R., & Boddie, S. (1999). The newer deal. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Danziger, S., & Gottschalk, P. (2004). Diverging fortunes: Trends in poverty and inequality. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  22. Danziger, S., Marsh, S., & Klum, K. (2008). Community services after welfare reform: Changing needs, shrinking resources, report prepared for the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation. Ann Arbor, MF: University of Michigan Program on Poverty and Social Welfare Policy.Google Scholar
  23. Deacon, B. (1999, January). Towards a socially responsible globalization: International actors and discourses. GASPP Occasional Papers, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  24. Delgado, M. (2000). Community social work practice in an urban context: The potential of a capacity-enhancement perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. DeParle, J. (2004). American dream: Three women, ten kids, and a nation’s drive to end welfare. New York: Viking Press.Google Scholar
  26. Esping-Andersen, G., Gallie, D., Hemerijck, A., & Myles, J. (2002). Why we need a new welfare state. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fink. B., & Widom, R. (2001). Social service organizations and welfare reform. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Organization.Google Scholar
  28. Fisher, R., & Karger, H. J. (1997). Social work and community in a private world: Getting out in public. New York: LongmanGoogle Scholar
  29. Fisher, R., & Kling, J., (Eds.) (1993). Mobilizing the community: Local politics in the era of the global city. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Friedman, M. (1962). Capitalism and freedom. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  31. George, V., & Wilding, P. (2002). Globalization and human welfare. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  32. Greve, B. (2006). The future of the welfare state: European and global perspectives. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  33. Hacker, J. S. (2002). The divided welfare state: The battle over public and private social benefits in the U.S. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hayek, F. J. (1949)., Individualism and economic order. Cambridge UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  35. Head, S. (1996, February 29). The new ruthless economy, The New York review of books, 43, 47–52.Google Scholar
  36. Jacobson, D. (2001). Doing justice: Congregations and community organization. US: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  37. Jansson, B. (2005). The reluctant welfare state, 5th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  38. Jessop, B. (1999). The changing governance of welfare: Recent trends in its primary functions, scale, and modes of coordination. Social Policy & Administration, 33, 348–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jessop, B. (2002). The future of the capitalist state. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kaminer, W. (2002). Free for all: Defending liberty in America today. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  41. Kapp, J. W. (1971). The social costs of private enterprise. New York: Schocken.Google Scholar
  42. Karger, H. J., & Stoesz, D. (2006). American social policy: A pluralist approach, 5th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  43. Katz, M. B. (2001). The price of citizenship: Redefining the American welfare state. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  44. Korean Academy of Social Welfare, ed. (2007). Human rights and social justice: Rethinking Social Welfare’s Mission. Seoul, Korba: Author.Google Scholar
  45. Leiby, J. (1978). A history of social welfare and social work in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Lieberman, R. (1998). Shifting the color line: Race and the American welfare state. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Macarov, D. (2003). What the market does to people: Privatization, globalization and poverty. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  48. Manski, B. (2000, April 16). To our friends and allies in progressive campus organizations. e-mail communication.Google Scholar
  49. McDonald, C., Harris, J., & Winterstein, R. (2003). Contingent on context? Social work in Australia, Britain, and the USA. British Journal of Social Work, 33(2), 191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McDonald, C., & Reisch, M. (2008). Social work in the workfare regime: A comparison of the U.S. and Australia. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 35(1), 43–74.Google Scholar
  51. Midgley, J. (1997). Social welfare in global context. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  52. Naples, N. A., (Ed.) (1998). Community activism and feminist politics: Organizing across race, class, and gender. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Navarro, V. (2007). Neoliberalism, globalization and inequalities: Consequences for health and quality of life. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publications.Google Scholar
  54. Patterson, J. (2001). America’s struggle against poverty in the 20th century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Piketty, T., & Saez, E. (2003). Income inequality in the United States, 1913–1998, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118 (updated through 2005 at http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/saez
  56. Piven, F. F. (2005). Institutions and agents in the politics of welfare cutbacks, paper prepared for the Conference on Making the Politics of Poverty and Inequality: How Public Policies are Reshaping American Democracy, Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty.Google Scholar
  57. Popper, K. (1997). The lesson of this century. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Prigoff, A. (2001). Economics for social workers: Social Outcomes of economic globalization with strategies for community action, Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  59. Quadagno, J. (1996). Race and American social policy. National Forum, 76(3), 35–59.Google Scholar
  60. Rank, M. R. (2004). One nation underprivileged: Why American poverty affects us all, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Reich, R. (2001). The future of success. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  62. Reisch, M. (2005). American exceptionalism and critical social work: A retrospective and prospective analysis. In I. Ferguson, M. Lavalette, & E. Whitmore (Eds.), Globalisation, global justice and social work, (pp. 157–172). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Reisch, M. (2003). Welfare reform, globalization, and the transformation of the welfare state. In M. R. Gonzalez, (ed.), Community organization and social policy: A compendium, 2nd ed. San Juan, PR: Editorial Edil.Google Scholar
  64. Reisch, M., & Andrews, J. (2001). The road not taken: A history of radical social work in the United States, Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Reisch, M., & Bischoff, U. (2001). Welfare reform strategies and community-based organizations: The impact on family well-being in an urban neighborhood, in F.F. Piven, J. Acker, M. Hallock, S. Morgen, (eds.), Welfare, work, and politics, (pp. 333–346). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Press.Google Scholar
  66. Reisch, M., & Gorin, S. (2000). The nature of work and the future of the social work profession. Social Work, 46(1), 9–19.Google Scholar
  67. Reisch, M., & Sommerfeld, D. (2003). Welfare reform and the future of nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 14(1), 19–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rifkin, J. (1995). The end of work. New York: Tarcher/Putnam.Google Scholar
  69. Rose, N. (1997). The future economic landscape. In M. Reisch & E. Gambrill, (Eds.), Social Work in the 21 st Century (pp. 28–38). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  70. Schiele, J. (1998). The personal responsibility act of 1996: The bitter and the sweet for African American families. Families in Society, 79(4), 424–432.Google Scholar
  71. Schram, S. F., Soss, J., & Fording, R. C. (Eds.) (2003). Race and the politics of welfare reform. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  72. Schram, S. F., Soss, J., Fording, R.C., & Houser, L. (2007). Deciding to discipline: A multi-method study of race, choice, and punishment at the frontlines of welfare reform. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  73. Smeeding, T. (2008, February). Poorer by comparison. Pathways, 3–5.Google Scholar
  74. Sodersten, B. (Ed.) (2004). Globalization and the welfare state. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  75. Third World Network. (Ed.). (1996). Barking up the wrong tree: Trade and social clause links, http://www.twnside.org/sg/south/twn/title/tree-ch.htm.
  76. Titmuss, R. (Ed.). (1969). Essays on the welfare state. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  77. Towle, C. (1952). Common human needs. New York: American Association of Social Workers.Google Scholar
  78. Twombly, E. D. (2001). Welfare reform’s impact on the failure rate of nonprofit human service providers, Charting Civil Society, no. 9, Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy.Google Scholar
  79. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2008a). Poverty in the U.S., Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  80. United States Bureau of the Census. (2008b). Statistical abstract of the United States, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  81. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2004). Change in TANF caseloads. Washington, DC: Administration for Children and Families.Google Scholar
  82. Walzer, M., (Ed.) (2003). Toward a global civil society. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  83. Young, D. (1999). Complementary, supplementary, or adversarial? A theoretical and historical examination of nonprofit-government relations in the United States. In E. Boris and E. Steuerle, (Eds.), Nonprofits and government: Collaboration and conflict. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  84. Zunz, O., Schoppa, L., & Hiwatari, N. (2002). Social contracts under stress: The middle classes of America, Europe, and Japan at the turn of the century. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social WorkUniversity of MarylandBaltimareUSA

Personalised recommendations