Strategic Research Priorities and Directions

  • Margaret Kosal


Formidable technical challenges exist in achieving the countermeasures envisioned for chemical and biological (CB) defense by 2030 projected in Chap. 3 and to enable countermeasures against the type of threats described in Chap. 4 . Real scientific breakthroughs will be needed at a fundamental level in order to realize these revolutionary countermeasures in physical protection, detection and diagnostics, decontamination, and medical applications. Much of the research required for this broad strategy must be aimed at new scientific discovery versus research aimed at development of a specific application.


System Biology Nanoscale Material Convalescent Seron Implantable Sensor Medical Countermeasure 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    This refers to DoD science and technology (S&T) program categories of basic research (6.1), applied research (6.2), and advanced technology development (6.3).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has initiated efforts to examine a select representation of nanostructures – carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) particles used in sunscreens and bactericides, and quantum dots.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) was established with assistance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The NCL serves as a resource and knowledge base for all cancer researchers to facilitate the regulatory review of nanotechnologies intended for cancer therapies and diagnostics. By providing the critical infrastructure and characterization services to nanomaterial providers, the NCL can accelerate the transition of basic nanoscale particles and devices into clinical applications. The NCL has developed a set of assay cascade protocols that allows for the characterization of nanomaterials’ physical attributes, their in vitro biological properties, and their in vivo compatibility using animal models. The time required to characterize nanomaterials from receipt through the in vivo phase is anticipated to be one year. A robust bibliography of pertinent studies can be found at Scholar
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    Progress Toward Safe Nanotechnology in the Workplace NIOSH 2007-123. Scholar
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    The Nanomaterials Working Group is cochaired by the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense, Laboratories and Basic Science [DUSD(LABS)] and the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations & Environment). More information can be found at https://www.denix.osd.milGoogle Scholar
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    Significant progress has been made to date in the practices applied to large-scale parallel processing to address national technological issues. An excellent example upon which to expand for the future needs is that of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). The code development practices and testing procedures that have evolved over time for their nuclear mission provides a sound foundation for future expansion in developing the required biological and chemical defense related models and simulations. Their practices for lifecycle management of codes demonstrate the potential reliability resulting from rigorous uncertain qualification methodology development for high consequence national security decision making.Google Scholar
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    The National Cancer Institute’s National Characterization Laboratory could serve as a working example of a protocol that characterizes nanomaterials’ physical attributes, their in vitro biological properties, and their in vivo compatibility using animal models.Google Scholar
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    Over the last 2 years, the National Institutes of Health has established a national network of eight Nanomedicine Development Centers, intended to serve as the intellectual and technological centerpiece of the NIH Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative. These collaborative centers are staffed by multidisciplinary biomedical scientific teams including biologists, physicians, mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists. Research conducted is currently directed toward gathering extensive information about the physical properties of intracellular structures to learn how biology’s molecular machines are built. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Georgia Institute of TechnologySam Nunn School of International Affairs Center for International StrategyMariettaUSA

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