Psychological Co-morbidities of Obesity

  • Sherry Pagoto
  • Kristin Schneider
  • Bradley M. Appelhans
  • Carol Curtin
  • Alexandra Hajduk


The association between obesity and psychological disorders has gained attention as the prevalence of obesity has rapidly increased in recent decades. Prevalence of obesity in people with psychological disorders has grown as fast or faster than in the general population (Am J Prev Med 36:341–350, 2009), which points to a growing health disparity in psychological-disordered populations. Not only are people with various psychological disorders disproportionately affected by obesity, but obesity appears to increase risk for various psychological disorders. The aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive overview of the associations between obesity and psychological disorders, potential mechanisms underlying these associations, and assessment and treatment of individuals with these comorbidities, including clinical challenges. Gaps in the research literature will be identified and recommendations for future made.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Bariatric Surgery Bipolar Disorder Generalize Anxiety Disorder Childhood Sexual Abuse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adami, G. F., Campostano, A., Marinari, G. M., Ravera, G., & Scopinaro, N. (2002). Night eating in obesity: A descriptive study. Nutrition, 18(7–8), 587–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, L. A., Spencer, T., Faraone, S., Kessler, R. C., Howes, M. J., Biederman, J., et al. (2006). Validity of pilot Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) to rate adult ADHD symptoms. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 18(3), 145–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agranat-Meged, A., Deitcher, C., Goldzweig, G., Leibenson, L., Stein, M., & Galili-Weisstub, E. (2005). Childhood obesity and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A newly described co-morbidity in obese hospitalized children. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37(4), 357–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Agranat-Meged, A., Ghanadri, Y., Eisenberg, I., Ben Neriah, Z., Kieselstein-Gross, E., & ­Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in obese melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) deficient subjects: A newly described expression of MC4R deficiency. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 147B(8), 1547–1553.Google Scholar
  5. Agras, W. S., Telch, C. F., Arnow, B., Eldredge, K., Detzer, M. J., Henderson, J., et al. (1995). Does interpersonal therapy help patients with binge eating disorder who fail to respond to cognitive-behavioral therapy? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(3), 356–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Agras, W. S., Telch, C. F., Arnow, B., Eldredge, K., & Marnell, M. (1997). One-year follow-up of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obese individuals with binge eating disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(2), 343–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Allison, K. C., Ahima, R. S., O’Reardon, J. P., Dinges, D. F., Sharma, V., Cummings, D. E., et al. (2005). Neuroendocrine profiles associated with energy intake, sleep, and stress in the night eating syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(11), 6214–6217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allison, D. B., & Casey, D. E. (2001). Antipsychotic-induced weight gain: A review of the literature. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 7), 22–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Allison, D. B., Fontaine, K. R., Heo, M., Mentore, J. L., Cappelleri, J. C., Chandler, L. P., et al. (1999). The distribution of body mass index among individuals with and without schizophrenia. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60(4), 215–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Allison, K., Grilo, C. M., Masheb, R., & Stunkard, A. J. (2007). High self-reported rates of neglect and emotional abuse by persons with binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(12), 2874–2883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Allison, K. C., Lundgren, J. D., Moore, R. H., O’Reardon, J. P., & Stunkard, A. J. (2010). Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: A pilot study. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 64(1), 91–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Allison, K. C., Lundgren, J. D., O’Reardon, J. P., Geliebter, A., Gluck, M. E., Vinai, P., et al. (2010). Proposed diagnostic criteria for night eating syndrome. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43(3), 241–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Allison, K. C., Lundgren, J. D., O’Reardon, J. P., Martino, N. S., Sarwer, D. B., Wadden, T. A., et al. (2008). The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ): Psychometric properties of a measure of severity of the night eating syndrome. Eating Behaviors, 9(1), 62–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Allison, D. B., Newcomer, J. W., Dunn, A. L., Blumenthal, J. A., Fabricatore, A. N., Daumit, G. L., et al. (2009). Obesity among those with mental disorders: A National Institute of Mental Health meeting report. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(4), 341–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Allison, K. C., Wadden, T. A., Sarwer, D. B., Fabricatore, A. N., Crerand, C. E., Gibbons, L. M., et al. (2006). Night eating syndrome and binge eating disorder among persons seeking bariatric surgery: Prevalence and related features. Obesity (Silver Spring), 14(Suppl 2), 77S–82S.Google Scholar
  16. Alonso-Alonso, M., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2007). The right brain hypothesis for obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(16), 1819–1822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Altfas, J. R. (2002). Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among adults in obesity treatment. BMC Psychiatry, 2, 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Alvarez-Jimenez, M., Hetrick, S. E., Gonzalez-Blanch, C., Gleeson, J. F., & McGorry, P. D. (2008). Non-pharmacological management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 193(2), 101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Amani, R. (2007). Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects? BMC Psychiatry, 7, 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  21. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  22. American Psychiatric Association. (2010). DSM-5 proposed diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder. Retrieved August, 2010 from
  23. Anacker, C., Zunszain, P. A., Carvalho, L. A., & Pariante, C. M. (2011). The glucocorticoid receptor: Pivot of depression and of antidepressant treatment? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(3), 415–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Andersen, R. E., Wadden, T. A., Bartlett, S. J., Zemel, B., Verde, T. J., & Franckowiak, S. C. (1999). Effects of lifestyle activity vs structured aerobic exercise in obese women: A randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(4), 335–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ando, H., Yanagihara, H., Hayashi, Y., Obi, Y., Tsuruoka, S., Takamura, T., et al. (2005). Rhythmic messenger ribonucleic acid expression of clock genes and adipocytokines in mouse visceral adipose tissue. Endocrinology, 146(12), 5631–5636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Appelhans, B. M. (2009). Neurobehavioral inhibition of reward-driven feeding: Implications for dieting and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(4), 640–647.Google Scholar
  27. Appelhans, B. M., Pagoto, S. L., Peters, E. N., & Spring, B. J. (2010). HPA axis response to stress predicts short-term snack intake in obese women. Appetite, 54(1), 217–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Applehans, B. (2009). Neurobehavioral Inhibition of reward-driven feeding: Implications for dieting and obesity. Obesity, 17, 640–647.Google Scholar
  29. Arnsten, A. F. (2006). Fundamentals of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Circuits and pathways. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(Suppl 8), 7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Atlantis, E., & Baker, M. (2008). Obesity effects on depression: Systematic review of epidemiological studies. International Journal of Obesity (London), 32(6), 881–891.Google Scholar
  31. Bacon, L., Keim, N. L., Van Loan, M. D., Derricote, M., Gale, B., Kazaks, A., et al. (2002). Evaluating a ‘non-diet’ wellness intervention for improvement of metabolic fitness, psychological well-being and eating and activity behaviors. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26(6), 854–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Balbo, M., Leproult, R., & Van Cauter, E. (2010). Impact of sleep and its disturbances on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2010, 759234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bandini, L. G., Curtin, C., Hamad, C., Tybor, D. J., & Must, A. (2005). Prevalence of overweight in children with developmental disorders in the continuous national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. The Journal of Pediatrics, 146(6), 738–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Baptista, T., De Mendoza, S., Beaulieu, S., Bermudez, A., & Martinez, M. (2004). The metabolic syndrome during atypical antipsychotic drug treatment: Mechanisms and management. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 2(4), 290–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Baptista, T., ElFakih, Y., Uzcategui, E., Sandia, I., Talamo, E., Araujo de Baptista, E., et al. (2008). Pharmacological management of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain. CNS Drugs, 22(6), 477–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Baptista, T., Reyes, D., & Hernandez, L. (1999). Antipsychotic drugs and reproductive hormones: Relationship to body weight regulation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 62(3), 409–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Barnes, R. D., Masheb, R. M., White, M. A., & Grilo, C. M. (2011). Comparison of methods for identifying and assessing obese patients with binge eating disorder in primary care settings. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44(2), 157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Barry, D., Pietrzak, R. H., & Petry, N. M. (2008). Gender differences in associations between body mass index and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions. Annals of Epidemiology, 18(6), 458–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Bauchowitz, A. U., Gonder-Frederick, L. A., Olbrisch, M. E., Azarbad, L., Ryee, M. Y., Woodson, M., et al. (2005). Psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery candidates: A survey of present practices. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(5), 825–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Bazar, K. A., Yun, A. J., Lee, P. Y., Daniel, S. M., & Doux, J. D. (2006). Obesity and ADHD may represent different manifestations of a common environmental oversampling syndrome: A model for revealing mechanistic overlap among cognitive, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders. Medical Hypotheses, 66(2), 263–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Berridge, K. C., Ho, C. Y., Richard, J. M., & DiFeliceantonio, A. G. (2010). The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders. Brain Research, 1350, 43–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Biederman, J., Monuteaux, M. C., Mick, E., Spencer, T., Wilens, T. E., Klein, K. L., et al. (2006). Psychopathology in females with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A controlled, five-year prospective study. Biological Psychiatry, 60(10), 1098–1105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Biederman, J., & Spencer, T. J. (2008). Psychopharmacological interventions. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17(2), 439–458, xi.Google Scholar
  45. Birketvedt, G. S., Florholmen, J., Sundsfjord, J., Osterud, B., Dinges, D., Bilker, W., et al. (1999). Behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics of the night-eating syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 657–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Bjorntorp, P. (2001). Do stress reactions cause abdominal obesity and comorbidities? Obesity Reviews, 2(2), 73–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Black, D. W., Goldstein, R. B., & Mason, E. E. (1992). Prevalence of mental disorder in 88 morbidly obese bariatric clinic patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(2), 227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Blackburn, G. L., Hutter, M. M., Harvey, A. M., Apovian, C. M., Boulton, H. R., Cummings, S., et al. (2009). Expert panel on weight loss surgery: executive report update. Obesity, 17(5), 842–862.Google Scholar
  49. Blaine, B. (2008). Does depression cause obesity?: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of depression and weight control. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(8), 1190–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Blaine, B., & Rodman, J. (2007). Responses to weight loss treatment among obese individuals with and without BED: A matched-study meta-analysis. Eating and Weight Disorders, 12(2), 54–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Blum, K., Braverman, E. R., Wood, R. C., Gill, J., Li, C., Chen, T. J., et al. (1996). Increased prevalence of the Taq I A1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) in obesity with co-morbid substance use disorder: A preliminary report. Pharmacogenetics, 6(4), 297–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M. A., Doraiswamy, P. M., Watkins, L., Hoffman, B. M., Barbour, K. A., et al. (2007). Exercise and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(7), 587–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Bond, D. J., Kauer-Sant’Anna, M., Lam, R. W., & Yatham, L. N. (2010). Weight gain, obesity, and metabolic indices following a first manic episode: Prospective 12-month data from the Systematic Treatment Optimization Program for Early Mania (STOP-EM). Journal of Affective Disorders, 124(1–2), 108–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Bowden, C. L., Calabrese, J. R., Ketter, T. A., Sachs, G. S., White, R. L., & Thompson, T. R. (2006). Impact of lamotrigine and lithium on weight in obese and nonobese patients with bipolar I disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(7), 1199–1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Bower, J. E., Ganz, P. A., Aziz, N., & Fahey, J. L. (2002). Fatigue and proinflammatory cytokine activity in breast cancer survivors. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(4), 604–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Bowirrat, A., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2005). Relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission, alcoholism, and reward deficiency. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 132, 29–37.Google Scholar
  57. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Britz, B., Siegfried, W., Ziegler, A., Lamertz, C., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. M., Remschmidt, H., et al. (2000). Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24(12), 1707–1714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Broocks, A., Bandelow, B., Pekrun, G., George, A., Meyer, T., Bartmann, U., et al. (1998). Comparison of aerobic exercise, clomipramine, and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(5), 603–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Brownley, K. A., Berkman, N. D., Sedway, J. A., Lohr, K. N., & Bulik, C. M. (2007). Binge eating disorder treatment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(4), 337–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Bulik, C. M., Sullivan, P. F., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). An empirical study of the classification of eating disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(6), 886–895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Bulik, C. M., Sullivan, P. F., & Kendler, K. S. (2002). Medical and psychiatric morbidity in obese women with and without binge eating. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 32(1), 72–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Buser, A., Dymek-Valentine, M., Hilburger, J., & Alverdy, J. (2004). Outcome following gastric bypass surgery: Impact of past sexual abuse. Obesity Surgery, 14(2), 170–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Cancello, R., & Clement, K. (2006). Is obesity an inflammatory illness? Role of low-grade ­inflammation and macrophage infiltration in human white adipose tissue. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 113(10), 1141–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Capuron, L., Poitou, C., Machaux-Tholliez, D., Frochot, V., Bouillot, J. L., Basdevant, A., et al. (2011). Relationship between adiposity, emotional status and eating behaviour in obese women: Role of inflammation. Psychological Medicine, 41(7), 1517–1528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Capuron, L., Ravaud, A., & Dantzer, R. (2000). Early depressive symptoms in cancer patients receiving interleukin 2 and/or interferon alfa-2b therapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 18(10), 2143–2151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Carels, R. A., Darby, L. A., Cacciapaglia, H. M., & Douglass, O. M. (2004). Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women through a lifestyle change intervention. Journal of Women’s Health (Larchmt), 13(4), 412–426.Google Scholar
  68. Cargill, B. R., Clark, M. M., Pera, V., Niaura, R. S., & Abrams, D. B. (1999). Binge eating, body image, depression, and self-efficacy in an obese clinical population. Obesity Research, 7(4), 379–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Carpenter, K., Hasin, D., Allison, D., & Faith, M. (2000). Relationships between obesity and DSM-IV major depressive disorder, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts: Results from a general population study. American Journal of Public Health, 90(2), 251–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Casey, D. E., Carson, W. H., Saha, A. R., Liebeskind, A., Ali, M. W., Jody, D., et al. (2003). Switching patients to aripiprazole from other antipsychotic agents: A multicenter randomized study. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 166(4), 391–399.Google Scholar
  71. Casey, B. J., Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Schubert, A. B., et al. (1997). Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(3), 374–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Cassidy, F., Ritchie, J. C., & Carroll, B. J. (1998). Plasma dexamethasone concentration and cortisol response during manic episodes. Biological Psychiatry, 43(10), 747–754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Vaituzis, A. C., Dickstein, D. P., et al. (1996). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(7), 607–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Celio, A. A., Wilfley, D. E., Crow, S. J., Mitchell, J., & Walsh, B. T. (2004). A comparison of the binge eating scale, questionnaire for eating and weight patterns-revised, and eating disorder examination questionnaire with instructions with the eating disorder examination in the assessment of binge eating disorder and its symptoms. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 36(4), 434–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Chen, E. Y., Bocchieri-Ricciardi, L. E., Munoz, D., Fischer, S., Katterman, S., Roehrig, M., et al. (2007). Depressed mood in class III obesity predicted by weight-related stigma. Obesity Surgery, 17(5), 669–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Chen, C. K., Chen, Y. C., & Huang, Y. S. (2009). Effects of a 10-week weight control program on obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: A 12-month follow up. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63(1), 17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Chen, Y., & Silverstone, T. (1990). Lithium and weight gain. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5(3), 217–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Chou, K. L., & Chi, I. (2005). Prevalence of depression among elderly Chinese with diabetes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(6), 570–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Clark, M. M., Cargill, B. R., Medeiros, M. L., & Pera, V. (1996). Changes in self-efficacy following obesity treatment. Obesity Research, 4(2), 179–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Clark, M. M., Hanna, B. K., Mai, J. L., Graszer, K. M., Krochta, J. G., McAlpine, D. E., et al. (2007). Sexual abuse survivors and psychiatric hospitalization after bariatric surgery. Obesity Surgery, 17(4), 465–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Claudino, A. M., de Oliveira, I. R., Appolinario, J. C., Cordas, T. A., Duchesne, M., Sichieri, R., et al. (2007). Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate plus cognitive-behavior therapy in binge-eating disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(9), 1324–1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Cohen, M. X., Young, J., Baek, J. M., Kessler, C., & Ranganath, C. (2005). Individual differences in extraversion and dopamine genetics predict neural reward responses. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research, 25(3), 851–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Colles, S. L., & Dixon, J. B. (2006). Night eating syndrome: Impact on bariatric surgery. Obesity Surgery, 16(7), 811–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Colles, S. L., Dixon, J. B., & O’Brien, P. E. (2007). Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: Association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress. International Journal of Obesity (London), 31(11), 1722–1730.Google Scholar
  85. Comings, D. E., & Blum, K. (2000). Reward deficiency syndrome: Genetic aspects of behavioral disorders. Progress in Brain Research, 126, 325–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Conway, J., Wong, K. K., O’Connell, C., & Warren, A. E. (2008). Cardiovascular risk screening before starting stimulant medications and prescribing practices of Canadian physicians: Impact of the Health Canada advisory. Pediatrics, 122(4), e828–e834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Cortese, S., Angriman, M., Maffeis, C., Isnard, P., Konofal, E., Lecendreux, M., et al. (2008). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity: A systematic review of the literature. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48(6), 524–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Cortese, S., Bernardina, B. D., & Mouren, M. C. (2007). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating. Nutrition Reviews, 65(9), 404–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Cortese, S., Isnard, P., Frelut, M. L., Michel, G., Quantin, L., Guedeney, A., et al. (2007). Association between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bulimic behaviors in a clinical sample of severely obese adolescents. International Journal of Obesity (London), 31(2), 340–346.Google Scholar
  90. Coryell, W. (2009). Maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder: A reassessment of lithium as the first choice. Bipolar Disorders, 11(Suppl 2), 77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Coste, S. C., Murray, S. E., & Stenzel-Poore, M. P. (2001). Animal models of CRH excess and CRH receptor deficiency display altered adaptations to stress. Peptides, 22(5), 733–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Craft, L. L., Freund, K. M., Culpepper, L., & Perna, F. M. (2007). Intervention study of exercise for depressive symptoms in women. Journal of Women’s Health (Larchmt), 16(10), 1499–1509.Google Scholar
  93. Croft, H., Houser, T. L., Jamerson, B. D., Leadbetter, R. A., Bolden-Watson, C., Donahue, R., et al. (2002). Effect on body weight of bupropion sustained-release in patients with major depression treated for 52 weeks. Clinical Therapeutics, 24(4), 662–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Dalle Grave, R., Calugi, S., Ruocco, A., & Marchesini, G. (2011). NES and weight loss outcome in obese patients. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44(2), 150–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Dallman, M. F. (2010). Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 21(3), 159–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Dallman, M. F., Akana, S. F., Strack, A. M., Hanson, E. S., & Sebastian, R. J. (1995). The neural network that regulates energy balance is responsive to glucocorticoids and insulin and also regulates HPA axis responsivity at a site proximal to CRF neurons. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 771, 730–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Dallman, M. F., Pecoraro, N. C., & la Fleur, S. E. (2005). Chronic stress and comfort foods: Self-medication and abdominal obesity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 19, 275–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Darga, L. L., Carroll-Michals, L., Botsford, S. J., & Lucas, C. P. (1991). Fluoxetine’s effect on weight loss in obese subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54(2), 321–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Daumit, G. L., Clark, J. M., Steinwachs, D. M., Graham, C. M., Lehman, A., & Ford, D. E. (2003). Prevalence and correlates of obesity in a community sample of individuals with severe and persistent mental illness. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191(12), 799–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Davis, C., & Fox, J. (2008). Sensitivity to reward and body mass index (BMI): Evidence for a non-linear relationship. Appetite, 50(1), 43–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Davis, C., Levitan, R. D., Kaplan, A. S., Carter, J., Reid, C., Curtis, C., et al. (2008). Reward sensitivity and the D2 dopamine receptor gene: A case-control study of binge eating disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 32(3), 620–628.Google Scholar
  102. Davis, C., Patte, K., Levitan, R. D., Carter, J., Kaplan, A. S., Zai, C., et al. (2009). A psycho-genetic study of associations between the symptoms of binge eating disorder and those of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(7), 687–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Davis, C., Strachan, S., & Berkson, M. (2004). Sensitivity to reward: Implications for overeating and overweight. Appetite, 42(2), 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. de Kloet, C. S., Vermetten, E., Geuze, E., Kavelaars, A., Heijnen, C. J., & Westenberg, H. G. (2006). Assessment of HPA-axis function in posttraumatic stress disorder: Pharmacological and non-pharmacological challenge tests, a review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40(6), 550–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. de Zwaan, M., Burgard, M. A., Schenck, C. H., & Mitchell, J. E. (2003). Night time eating: A review of the literature. European Eating Disorders Review, 11, 7–24.Google Scholar
  106. de Zwaan, M., Hilbert, A., Swan-Kremeier, L., Simonich, H., Lancaster, K., Howell, L. M., et al. (2010). Comprehensive interview assessment of eating behavior 18-35 months after gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, 6(1), 79–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. de Zwaan, M., Mitchell, J. E., & Crosby, R. D. (2005). Short-term cognitive behavioral treatment does not improve outcome of a comprehensive very-low-calorie diet program in obese women with binge eating disorder. Behavior Therapy, 36, 89–99.Google Scholar
  108. de Zwaan, M., Mitchell, J. E., Specker, S. M., Pyle, R. L., Mussell, M. P., & Seim, H. C. (1993). Diagnosing binge eating disorder: Level of agreement between self-report and expert-rating. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 14(3), 289–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Depue, R. A., & Collins, P. F. (1999). Neurobiology of the structure of personality: Dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(3), 491–517; discussion 518–569.Google Scholar
  110. Derryberry, D., & Tucker, D. M. (1991). The adaptive base of the neural hierachy: Elementary motivational controls on network function. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Neraska symposim on ­motivation: Vol 38 Perspectives on motivation (pp. 289–342). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  111. Devlin, M. J. (2001). Binge-eating disorder and obesity. A combined treatment approach. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24(2), 325–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Devlin, M. J., Goldfein, J. A., & Dobrow, I. (2003). What is this thing called BED? Current status of binge eating disorder nosology. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34(Suppl), S2–S18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Devlin, M. J., Goldfein, J. A., Petkova, E., Jiang, H., Raizman, P. S., Wolk, S., et al. (2005). Cognitive behavioral therapy and fluoxetine as adjuncts to group behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder. Obesity Research, 13(6), 1077–1088.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Dixon, L. B., Dickerson, F., Bellack, A. S., Bennett, M., Dickinson, D., Goldberg, R. W., et al. (2010). The 2009 schizophrenia PORT psychosocial treatment recommendations and summary statements. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36(1), 48–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Drewnowski, A., Krahn, D. D., Demitrack, M. A., Nairn, K., & Gosnell, B. A. (1995). Naloxone, an opiate blocker, reduces the consumption of sweet high-fat foods in obese and lean female binge eaters. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(6), 1206–1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Dunkley, D. M., Masheb, R. M., & Grilo, C. M. (2010). Childhood maltreatment, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder: The mediating role of self-criticism. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43(3), 274–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Dunn, A. J., & Berridge, C. W. (1990). Physiological and behavioral responses to corticotropin-releasing factor administration: Is CRF a mediator of anxiety or stress responses? Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews, 15(2), 71–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Dunn, A. L., Trivedi, M. H., Kampert, J. B., Clark, C. G., & Chambliss, H. O. (2005). Exercise treatment for depression: Efficacy and dose response. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(1), 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Elder, K. A., Grilo, C. M., Masheb, R. M., Rothschild, B. S., Burke-Martindale, C. H., & Brody, M. L. (2006). Comparison of two self-report instruments for assessing binge eating in bariatric surgery candidates. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(4), 545–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Elhai, J. D., Grubaugh, A. L., Kashdan, T. B., & Frueh, B. C. (2008). Empirical examination of a proposed refinement to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder symptom criteria using the National Co-morbidity Survey Replication data. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(4), 597–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ellinger, L. K., Ipema, H. J., & Stachnik, J. M. (2010). Efficacy of metformin and topiramate in prevention and treatment of second-generation antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 44(4), 668–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ello-Martin, J. A., Roe, L. S., Ledikwe, J. H., Beach, A. M., & Rolls, B. J. (2007). Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: A year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(6), 1465–1477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Elmslie, J. L., Silverstone, J. T., Mann, J. I., Williams, S. M., & Romans, S. E. (2000). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in bipolar patients. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(3), 179–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Epel, E., Lapidus, R., McEwen, B., & Brownell, K. (2001). Stress may add bite to appetite in women: A laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26(1), 37–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Epel, E. S., Lin, J., Wilhelm, F. H., Wolkowitz, O. M., Cawthon, R., Adler, N. E., et al. (2006). Cell aging in relation to stress arousal and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31(3), 277–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. European Medicines Agency. (2010). Weight-loss medicine associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events to be removed from all markets in the European Union. Retrieved November 12, 2010 from
  127. Evans, A. H., Lawrence, A. D., Potts, J., MacGregor, L., Katzenschlager, R., Shaw, K., et al. (2006). Relationship between impulsive sensation seeking traits, smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake, and Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 77(3), 317–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Fabricatore, A. N., & Wadden, T. A. (2004). Psychological aspects of obesity. Clinics in Dermatology, 22(4), 332–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Fagiolini, A., & Chengappa, K. N. (2007). Weight gain and metabolic issues of medicines used for bipolar disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 9(6), 521–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Fagiolini, A., Frank, E., Cherry, C. R., Houck, P. R., Novick, D. M., Buysse, D. J., et al. (2002). Clinical indicators for the use of antidepressants in the treatment of bipolar I depression. Bipolar Disorders, 4(5), 277–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Fagiolini, A., Kupfer, D. J., Houck, P. R., Novick, D. M., & Frank, E. (2003). Obesity as a correlate of outcome in patients with bipolar I disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(1), 112–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Fairburn, C., & Beglin, S. J. (1994). Assessment of eating disorders: Interview or self-report questionnaire? The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16, 363–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Fairburn, C. G., Cooper, Z., Doll, H. A., Norman, P., & O’Connor, M. (2000). The natural course of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in young women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(7), 659–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Fairburn, C. G., Marcus, M. D., & Wilson, G. T. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating and bulimia nervosa: A comprehensive treatment manual. In C. G. Fairburn, M. D. Marcus, & G. T. Wilson (Eds.), Binge eating: Nature, assessment, and treatment. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  135. Falconer, E., Bryant, R., Felmingham, K. L., Kemp, A. H., Gordon, E., Peduto, A., et al. (2008). The neural networks of inhibitory control in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 33(5), 413–422.Google Scholar
  136. Faraone, S. V., & Glatt, S. J. (2010). A comparison of the efficacy of medications for adult ­attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using meta-analysis of effect sizes. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(6), 754–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Faulkner, G., Cohn, T., & Remington, G. (2007). Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1), CD005148.Google Scholar
  138. Faulkner, G. E., Gorczynski, P. F., & Cohn, T. A. (2009). Psychiatric illness and obesity: Recognizing the “obesogenic” nature of an inpatient psychiatric setting. Psychiatric Services, 60(4), 538–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Fava, M. (2000). Weight gain and antidepressants. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(Suppl 11), 37–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Johnson, C. L. (2002). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US Adults, 1999-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(14), 1723–1727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Fleming, J., & Levy, L. D. (2002). Eating disorders in women with ADHD. In P. O. Quinn & K. G. Nadeua (Eds.), Gender issues and ADHD: Research, diagnosis and treatment. Silver Spring, MD: Advantage Books.Google Scholar
  142. Fleming, J. P., Levy, L. D., & Levitan, R. D. (2005). Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in severely obese women. Eating and Weight Disorders, 10(1), e10–e13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Fontaine, K. R., Heo, M., Harrigan, E. P., Shear, C. L., Lakshminarayanan, M., Casey, D. E., et al. (2001). Estimating the consequences of anti-psychotic induced weight gain on health and mortality rate. Psychiatry Research, 101(3), 277–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Fossati, M., Amati, F., Painot, D., Reiner, M., Haenni, C., & Golay, A. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral therapy with simultaneous nutritional and physical activity education in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Eating and Weight Disorders, 9(2), 134–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Fosse, G. K., & Holen, A. (2006). Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 7(4), 404–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Foster, M. T., Warne, J. P., Ginsberg, A. B., Horneman, H. F., Pecoraro, N. C., Akana, S. F., et al. (2009). Palatable foods, stress, and energy stores sculpt corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropin, and corticosterone concentrations after restraint. Endocrinology, 150(5), 2325–2333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Freidenberg, B. M., Gusmano, R., Hickling, E. J., Blanchard, E. B., Bremner, J. D., & Frye, C. (2010). Women with PTSD have lower basal salivary cortisol levels later in the day than do men with PTSD: A preliminary study. Physiology and Behavior, 99(2), 234–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Friedman, K. E., Reichmann, S. K., Costanzo, P. R., & Musante, G. J. (2002). Body image partially mediates the relationship between obesity and psychological distress. Obesity Research, 10(1), 33–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Gabriele, J. M., Dubbert, P. M., & Reeves, R. R. (2009). Efficacy of behavioural interventions in managing atypical antipsychotic weight gain. Obesity Reviews, 10(4), 442–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Gadde, K. M., Yonish, G. M., Wagner, H. R., II, Foust, M. S., & Allison, D. B. (2006). Atomoxetine for weight reduction in obese women: A preliminary randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity, 30(7), 1138–1142.Google Scholar
  151. Garaulet, M., Ordovás, J. M., & Madrid, J. A. (2010). The chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 34(12), 1667–1683.Google Scholar
  152. Gariepy, G., Wang, J., Lesage, A. D., & Schmitz, N. (2010). The longitudinal association from obesity to depression: Results from the 12-year National Population Health Survey. Obesity, 18(5), 1033–1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. George, S. A., Khan, S., Briggs, H., & Abelson, J. L. (2010). CRH-stimulated cortisol release and food intake in healthy, non-obese adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(4), 607–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Glod, C. A., Teicher, M. H., Hartman, C. R., & Harakal, T. (1997). Increased nocturnal activity and impaired sleep maintenance in abused children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(9), 1236–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Gluck, M. E., Geliebter, A., & Lorence, M. (2004). Cortisol stress response is positively correlated with central obesity in obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) before and after cognitive-behavioral treatment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 202–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Gluck, M. E., Geliebter, A., & Satov, T. (2001). Night eating syndrome is associated with depression, low self-esteem, reduced daytime hunger, and less weight loss in obese outpatients. Obesity Research, 9(4), 264–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Gluck, M. E., Venti, C. A., Salbe, A. D., & Krakoff, J. (2008). Nighttime eating: Commonly observed and related to weight gain in an inpatient food intake study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(4), 900–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Golay, A., Laurent-Jaccard, A., Habicht, F., Gachoud, J. P., Chabloz, M., Kammer, A., et al. (2005). Effect of orlistat in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Obesity Research, 13, 1701–1708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Goldfein, J. A., Devlin, M. J., & Kamenetz, C. (2005). Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire with and without instruction to assess binge eating in patients with binge eating disorder. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37(2), 107–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Goldfield, G. S., Lorello, C., & Doucet, E. (2007). Methylphenidate reduces energy intake and dietary fat intake in adults: A mechanism of reduced reinforcing value of food? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(2), 308–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Goldfield, G. S., Moore, C., Henderson, K., Buchholz, A., Obeid, N., & Flament, M. F. (2010). Body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, depression, and weight status in adolescents. The Journal of School Health, 80(4), 186–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Goldstein, D. J., Rampey, A. H., Jr., Enas, G. G., Potvin, J. H., Fludzinski, L. A., & Levine, L. R. (1994). Fluoxetine: A randomized clinical trial in the treatment of obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 18(3), 129–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Goodrich, D. E., Lai, Z., Lasky, E., Burghardt, A. R., & Kilbourne, A. M. (2010). Access to weight loss counseling services among patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 126(1–2), 75–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Gormally, J., Black, S., Daston, S., & Rardin, D. (1982). The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addictive Behaviors, 7, 47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Gray, J. A. (1987). The neuropsychology of emotion and personality. In S. M. Stahl, S. D. Iverson, & E. C. Goodman (Eds.), Cognitive neurochemistry (pp. 171–190). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  166. Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (2000). The neuropsychology of anxiety. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  167. Greeno, C. G., & Wing, R. R. (1994). Stress-induced eating. Psychological Bulletin, 115(3), 444–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Greenway, F. L., Dunayevich, E., Tollefson, G., Erickson, J., Guttadauria, M., Fujioka, K., et al. (2009). Comparison of combined bupropion and naltrexone therapy for obesity with monotherapy and placebo. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(12), 4898–4906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Greenway, F. L., Fujioka, K., Plodkowski, R. A., Mudaliar, S., Guttadauria, M., Erickson, J., et al. (2010). Effect of naltrexone plus bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults (COR-I): A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. The Lancet, 376(9741), 595–605.Google Scholar
  170. Greenway, F. L., Whitehouse, M. J., Guttadauria, M., Anderson, J. W., Atkinson, R. L., Fujioka, K., et al. (2009). Rational design of a combination medication for the treatment of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(1), 30–39.Google Scholar
  171. Gregoor, J. G., van der Weide, J., Mulder, H., Cohen, D., van Megen, H. J., Egberts, A. C., et al. (2009). Polymorphisms of the LEP- and LEPR gene and obesity in patients using antipsychotic medication. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 29(1), 21–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Grilo, C. M., & Masheb, R. M. (2005). A randomized controlled comparison of guided self-help cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss for binge eating disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(11), 1509–1525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Grilo, C. M., Masheb, R. M., Brody, M., Toth, C., Burke-Martindale, C. H., & Rothschild, B. S. (2005). Childhood maltreatment in extremely obese male and female bariatric surgery candidates. Obesity Research, 13(1), 123–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Grilo, C. M., Masheb, R. M., & Wilson, G. T. (2001). Different methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder: A replication. Obesity Research, 9(7), 418–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Grilo, C. M., White, M. A., Masheb, R. M., Rothschild, B. S., & Burke-Martindale, C. H. (2006). Relation of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of maltreatment to 12-month postoperative outcomes in extremely obese gastric bypass patients. Obesity Surgery, 16(4), 454–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Grucza, R. A., Przybeck, T. R., & Cloninger, C. R. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in a community sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 48(2), 124–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Guerrieri, R., Nederkoorn, C., & Jansen, A. (2007). How impulsiveness and variety influence food intake in a sample of healthy women. Appetite, 48(1), 119–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Guerrieri, R., Nederkoorn, C., & Jansen, A. (2008). The interaction between impulsivity and a varied food environment: Its influence on food intake and overweight. International Journal of Obesity (London), 32(4), 708–714.Google Scholar
  179. Gustafson, T. B., & Sarwer, D. B. (2004). Childhood sexual abuse and obesity. Obesity Reviews, 5(3), 129–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Habib, K. E., Weld, K. P., Rice, K. C., Pushkas, J., Champoux, M., Listwak, S., et al. (2000). Oral administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist significantly attenuates behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic responses to stress in primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(11), 6079–6084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Hammerness, P., Wilens, T., Mick, E., Spencer, T., Doyle, R., McCreary, M., et al. (2009). Cardiovascular effects of longer-term, high-dose OROS methylphenidate in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatrics, 155(1), 84–89, 89 e1.Google Scholar
  182. Hamoui, N., Kingsbury, S., Anthone, G. J., & Crookes, P. F. (2004). Surgical treatment of morbid obesity in schizophrenic patients. Obesity Surgery, 14(3), 349–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Harrington, E., Crowther, J., Payne Henrickson, H., & Mickelson, K. (2006). The relationships among trauma, stress, ethnicity, and binge eating. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(2), 212–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Hasler, G., Pine, D. S., Gamma, A., Milos, G., Ajdacic, V., Eich, D., et al. (2004). The associations between psychopathology and being overweight: A 20-year prospective study. Psychological Medicine, 34(6), 1047–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Hay, P. P., Bacaltchuk, J., Stefano, S., & Kashyap, P. (2009). Psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa and binging. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4), CD000562.Google Scholar
  186. Hayden, M. J., Dixon, J. B., Dixon, M. E., Shea, T. L., & O’Brien, P. E. (2011). Characterization of the improvement in depressive symptoms following bariatric surgery. Obesity Surgery, 21(3), 328–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Hedley, A. A., Ogden, C. L., Johnson, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., & Flegal, K. M. (2004). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(23), 2847–2850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Heim, C., Mletzko, T., Purselle, D., Musselman, D. L., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2008). The dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing factor test in men with major depression: Role of childhood trauma. Biological Psychiatry, 63(4), 398–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Hesslinger, B., Tebartz van Elst, L., Nyberg, E., Dykierek, P., Richter, H., Berner, M., et al. (2002). Psychotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults – a pilot study using a structured skills training program. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 252(4), 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Howell, M. J., Schenck, C. H., & Crow, S. J. (2009). A review of nighttime eating disorders. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 13(1), 23–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Hrabosky, J. I., & Grilo, C. M. (2007). Body image and eating disordered behavior in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women. Eating Behaviors, 8(1), 106–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Hudson, J. I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H. G., Jr., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Co-morbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61(3), 348–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Hudson, J. I., Lalonde, J. K., Coit, C. E., Tsuang, M. T., McElroy, S. L., Crow, S. J., et al. (2010). Longitudinal study of the diagnosis of components of the metabolic syndrome in individuals with binge-eating disorder. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(6), 1568–1573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Ikossi, D. G., Maldonado, J. R., Hernandez-Boussard, T., & Eisenberg, D. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not a contraindication to gastric bypass in veterans with morbid obesity. Surgical Endoscopy, 24(8), 1892–1897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Ivan, I., Azarbad, L., Corsica, J., & Hood, M. (2009). Does binge eating mediate the relationship between ADHD characteristics and obesity severity? Obesity, 17(Suppl 2), S286.Google Scholar
  196. Jain, A. K., Kaplan, R. A., Gadde, K. M., Wadden, T. A., Allison, D. B., Brewer, E. R., et al. (2002). Bupropion SR vs. placebo for weight loss in obese patients with depressive symptoms. Obesity Research, 10(10), 1049–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Jakicic, J. M., Marcus, B. H., Lang, W., & Janney, C. (2008). Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(14), 1550–1559; discussion 1559–1560.Google Scholar
  198. James, W. P., Astrup, A., Finer, N., Hilsted, J., Kopelman, P., Rossner, S., et al. (2000). Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss: A randomised trial. STORM Study Group. Sibutramine Trial of Obesity Reduction and Maintenance. The Lancet, 356(9248), 2119–2125.Google Scholar
  199. James, W. P., Caterson, I. D., Coutinho, W., Finer, N., Van Gaal, L. F., Maggioni, A. P., et al. (2010). Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363(10), 905–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Jarosz, P. A., Dobal, M. T., Wilson, F. L., & Schram, C. A. (2007). Disordered eating and food cravings among urban obese African American women. Eating Behaviors, 8(3), 374–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Childhood adversities associated with risk for eating disorders or weight problems during adolescence or early adulthood. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(3), 394–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Kaneko, K., Yamada, T., Tsukita, S., Takahashi, K., Ishigaki, Y., Oka, Y., et al. (2009). Obesity alters circadian expressions of molecular clock genes in the brainstem. Brain Research, 1263, 58–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Kasen, S., Cohen, P., Chen, H., & Must, A. (2008). Obesity and psychopathology in women: A three decade prospective study. International Journal of Obesity (London), 32(3), 558–566.Google Scholar
  204. Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., et al. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Co-morbidity Survey Replication. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 716–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and co-morbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Co-morbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Khazaal, Y., Fresard, E., Borgeat, F., & Zullino, D. (2006). Binge eating symptomatology in overweight and obese patients with schizophrenia: A case control study. Annals of General Psychiatry, 5, 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Khazaal, Y., Rothen, S., Moriniere Trombert, N., Fresard, E., & Zullino, D. F. (2007). Dietary underreporting in women with schizophrenia requiring dietary intervention: A case control study. Eating and Weight Disorders, 12(4), e83–e85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Kim, K. H., Bursac, Z., DiLillo, V., White, D. B., & West, D. S. (2009). Stress, race, and body weight. Health Psychology, 28(1), 131–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Kim, S. W., Shin, I. S., Kim, J. M., Bae, K. Y., Yang, S. J., & Yoon, J. S. (2010). Effectiveness of switching from aripiprazole to ziprasidone in patients with schizophrenia. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 33(3), 121–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. King, T. K., Clark, M. M., & Pera, V. (1996). History of sexual abuse and obesity treatment outcome. Addictive Behaviors, 21(3), 283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Kloiber, S., Ising, M., Reppermund, S., Horstmann, S., Dose, T., Majer, M., et al. (2007). Overweight and obesity affect treatment response in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 62(4), 321–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Kyrou, I., Chrousos, G. P., & Tsigos, C. (2006). Stress, visceral obesity, and metabolic complications. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1083, 77–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Lagarde, G., Doyon, J., & Brunet, A. (2010). Memory and executive dysfunctions associated with acute posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research, 177(1–2), 144–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Lam, L. T., & Yang, L. (2007). Overweight/obesity and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder tendency among adolescents in China. Internation Journal of Obesity (London), 31(4), 584–590.Google Scholar
  215. Laposkya, A. D., Bassb, J., Kohsakac, A., & Turek, F. W. (2008). Sleep and circadian rhythms: Key components in the regulation of energy metabolism. FEBS Letters, 582, 142–151.Google Scholar
  216. Lara, C., Fayyad, J., de Graaf, R., Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Angermeyer, M., et al. (2009). Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biological Psychology, 65(1), 46–54.Google Scholar
  217. Larsen, J. K., & Geenen, R. (2005). Childhood sexual abuse is not associated with a poor outcome after gastric banding for severe obesity. Obesity Surgery, 15(4), 534–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Leddy, J. J., Epstein, L. H., Jaroni, J. L., Roemmich, J. N., Paluch, R. A., Goldfield, G. S., et al. (2004). Influence of methylphenidate on eating in obese men. Obesity Research, 12(2), 224–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Lee, S. J., Choi, E. J., & Kwon, J. S. (2008). A naturalistic multicenter trial of a 12-week weight management program for overweight and obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(4), 555–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Levy, L. D., Fleming, J. P., & Klar, D. (2009). Treatment of refractory obesity in severely obese adults following management of newly diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. International Journal of Obesity, 33, 326–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Limosin, F., Gasquet, I., Leguay, D., Azorin, J. M., & Rouillon, F. (2008). Body mass index and prevalence of obesity in a French cohort of patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(1), 19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Linde, J. A., Jeffery, R. W., Levy, R. L., Sherwood, N. E., Utter, J., Pronk, N. P., et al. (2004). Binge eating disorder, weight control self-efficacy, and depression in overweight men and women. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 28(3), 418–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Linde, J. A., Simon, G. E., Ludman, E. J., Ichikawa, L. E., Operskalski, B. H., Arterburn, D., et al. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of behavioral weight loss treatment versus combined weight loss/depression treatment among women with co-morbid obesity and depression. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 41(1), 119–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Lindenmayer, J. P., Khan, A., Wance, D., Maccabee, N., Kaushik, S., & Kaushik, S. (2009). Outcome evaluation of a structured educational wellness program in patients with severe mental illness. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70(10), 1385–1396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Loeb, K. L., Wilson, G. T., Gilbert, J. S., & Labouvie, E. (2000). Guided and unguided self-help for binge eating. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(3), 259–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Lowe, M. R., van Steenburgh, J., Ochner, C., & Coletta, M. (2009). Neural correlates of individual differences related to appetite. Physiology and Behavior, 97(5), 561–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Lu, X. Y. (2007). The leptin hypothesis of depression: A potential link between mood disorders and obesity? Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 7(6), 648–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Ludman, E., Simon, G. E., Ichikawa, L. E., Operskalski, B. H., Arterburn, D., Linde, J. A., et al. (2009). Does depression reduce the effectiveness of behavioral weight loss treatment? Behavioral Medicine, 35(4), 126–134.Google Scholar
  229. Luppino, F. S., de Wit, L. M., Bouvy, P. F., Stijnen, T., Cuijpers, P., Penninx, B. W., et al. (2010). Overweight, obesity, and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(3), 220–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Ma, Y., Pagoto, S. L., Olendzki, B. C., Hafner, A. R., Perugini, R. A., Mason, R., et al. (2006). Predictors of weight status following laparoscopic roux-en-y gastric bypass. Obesity Surgery, 16(9), 1227–1231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Macht, M. (2008). How emotions affect eating: A five-way model. Appetite, 50, 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Malone, M., Alger-Mayer, S. A., & Anderson, D. A. (2005). Medication associated with weight gain may influence outcome in a weight management program. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 39(7–8), 1204–1208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Marques, L., Alegria, M., Becker, A. E., Chen, C. N., Fang, A., Chosak, A., et al. (2011). Comparative prevalence, correlates of impairment, and service utilization for eating disorders across US ethnic groups: Implications for reducing ethnic disparities in health care access for eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44(5), 412–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Masheb, R. M., & Grilo, C. M. (2008). Examination of predictors and moderators for self-help treatments of binge-eating disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(5), 900–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Mastorakos, G., & Zapanti, E. (2004). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and obesity: The role of corticotropin releasing hormone. Nutritional Neuroscience, 7(5–6), 271–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Mather, A. A., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Sareen, J. (2009). Associations of obesity with psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 66(4), 277–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. McAllister, E. J., Dhurandhar, N. V., Keith, S. W., Aronne, L. J., Barger, J., Baskin, M., et al. (2009). Ten putative contributors to the obesity epidemic. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 49(10), 868–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. McElroy, S. L. (2009). Obesity in patients with severe mental illness: Overview and management. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70(Suppl 3), 12–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. McElroy, S. L., Frye, M. A., Altshuler, L. L., Suppes, T., Hellemann, G., Black, D., et al. (2007). A 24-week, randomized, controlled trial of adjunctive sibutramine versus topiramate in the treatment of weight gain in overweight or obese patients with bipolar disorders. Bipolar Disorders, 9(4), 426–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. McElroy, S. L., Frye, M. A., Suppes, T., Dhavale, D., Keck, P. E., Jr., Leverich, G. S., et al. (2002). Correlates of overweight and obesity in 644 patients with bipolar disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63(3), 207–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. McElroy, S. L., Hudson, J. I., Capece, J. A., Beyers, K., Fisher, A. C., & Rosenthal, N. R. (2007). Topiramate for the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: A placebo-controlled study. Biological Psychiatry, 61(9), 1039–1048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. McEvoy, J. P., Meyer, J. M., Goff, D. C., Nasrallah, H. A., Davis, S. M., Sullivan, L., et al. (2005). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: Baseline results from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial and comparison with national estimates from NHANES III. Schizophrenia Research, 80(1), 19–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. McIntyre, R. S. (2002). Psychotropic drugs and adverse events in the treatment of bipolar disorders revisited. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63(Suppl 3), 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. McLaren, L. (2007). Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiologic Reviews, 29, 29–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. McNeely, W., & Goa, K. L. (1998). Sibutramine. A review of its contribution to the management of obesity. Drugs, 56(6), 1093–1124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. McTigue, K., Harris, R., Hemphill, M. B., Bunton, A. J., Lux, L. J., Sutton, S., et al. (2003). Systematic evidence review. Screening and interventions for overweight and obesity in adults. Research Triangle Park, NC: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  247. Meewisse, M. L., Reitsma, J. B., de Vries, G. J., Gersons, B. P., & Olff, M. (2007). Cortisol and post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 387–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Merom, D., Phongsavan, P., Wagner, R., Chey, T., Marnane, C., Steel, Z., et al. (2008). Promoting walking as an adjunct intervention to group cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders – a pilot group randomized trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(6), 959–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Michelson, D., Amsterdam, J. D., Quitkin, F. M., Reimherr, F. W., Rosenbaum, J. F., Zajecka, J., et al. (1999). Changes in weight during a 1-year trial of fluoxetine. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(8), 1170–1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Mikami, A. Y., Hinshaw, S. P., Patterson, K. A., & Lee, J. C. (2008). Eating pathology among adolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(1), 225–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Miller, G. E., Freedland, K. E., Carney, R. M., Stetler, C. A., & Banks, W. A. (2003). Pathways linking depression, adiposity, and inflammatory markers in healthy young adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17(4), 276–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Montes, J. M., Rodriguez, J. L., Balbo, E., Sopelana, P., Martin, E., Soto, J. A., et al. (2007). Improvement in antipsychotic-related metabolic disturbances in patients with schizophrenia switched to ziprasidone. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 31(2), 383–388.Google Scholar
  254. Munsch, S., Biedert, E., Meyer, A., Michael, T., Schlup, B., Tuch, A., et al. (2007). A randomized comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss treatment for overweight individuals with binge eating disorder. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(2), 102–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Napolitano, M. A., Head, S., Babyak, M. A., & Blumenthal, J. A. (2001). Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome: Psychological and behavioral characteristics. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 30(2), 193–203.Google Scholar
  256. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. (2004). NICE guidelines for eating disorders. Retrieved August, 2010 from
  257. National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. (2009). NICE guidelines for depression care. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from
  258. Nazar, B. P., Pinna, C. M., Coutinho, G., Segenreich, D., Duchesne, M., Appolinario, J. C., et al. (2008). Review of literature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with co-morbid eating disorders. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 30(4), 384–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Nederkoorn, C., Braet, C., Van Eijs, Y., Tanghe, A., & Jansen, A. (2006). Why obese children cannot resist food: The role of impulsivity. Eating Behaviors, 7(4), 315–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Nederkoorn, C., Guerrieri, R., Havermans, R. C., Roefs, A., & Jansen, A. (2009). The interactive effect of hunger and impulsivity on food intake and purchase in a virtual supermarket. International Journal of Obesity (London), 33(8), 905–912.Google Scholar
  261. Nederkoorn, C., Guerrieri, R., Roefs, A., & Jansen, A. (2008). Effects of impulsivity on food purchase and weight gain over time. Appetite, 51, 752.Google Scholar
  262. Nederkoorn, C., Jansen, E., Mulkens, S., & Jansen, A. (2007). Impulsivity predicts treatment outcome in obese children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(5), 1071–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Nederkoorn, C., Smulders, F. T., Havermans, R. C., Roefs, A., & Jansen, A. (2006). Impulsivity in obese women. Appetite, 47(2), 253–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Newcomer, J. W., Campos, J. A., Marcus, R. N., Breder, C., Berman, R. M., Kerselaers, W., et al. (2008). A multicenter, randomized, double-blind study of the effects of aripiprazole in overweight subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder switched from olanzapine. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(7), 1046–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Newman, E., O’Connor, D. B., & Conner, M. (2007). Daily hassles and eating behaviour: The role of cortisol reactivity status. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32(2), 125–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. O’Reardon, J. P., Allison, K. C., Martino, N. S., Lundgren, J. D., Heo, M., & Stunkard, A. J. (2006). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in the treatment of night eating syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(5), 893–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. O’Reardon, J. P., Ringel, B. L., Dinges, D. F., Allison, K. C., Rogers, N. L., Martino, N. S., et al. (2004). Circadian eating and sleeping patterns in the night eating syndrome. Obesity Research, 12(11), 1789–1796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. O’Reardon, J. P., Stunkard, A. J., & Allison, K. C. (2004). Clinical trial of sertraline in the treatment of night eating syndrome. Eating Disorders, 35(1), 16–26.Google Scholar
  269. Oliver, G., Wardle, J., & Gibson, E. L. (2000). Stress and food choice: A laboratory study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(6), 853–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Onyike, C. U., Crum, R. M., Lee, H. B., Lyketsos, C. G., & Eaton, W. W. (2003). Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158(12), 1139–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Oppong, B. A., Nickels, M. W., & Sax, H. C. (2006). The impact of a history of sexual abuse on weight loss in gastric bypass patients. Psychosomatics, 47(2), 108–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Osborn, D. P., Nazareth, I., & King, M. B. (2007). Physical activity, dietary habits and coronary heart disease risk factor knowledge amongst people with severe mental illness: A cross sectional comparative study in primary care. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(10), 787–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Pagoto, S. L., Bodenlos, J. S., Kantor, L., Gitkind, M., Curtin, C., & Ma, Y. (2007). Association of major depression and binge eating disorder with weight loss in a clinical setting. Obesity, 15(11), 2557–2559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Pagoto, S. L., Curtin, C., Bandini, L. G., Anderson, S. E., Schneider, K., Bodenlos, J. S., et al. (2010). Weight loss following a clinic-based weight loss program among adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Eating and Weight Disorders, 15, e166–e172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Pagoto, S. L., Bodenlos, J. S., Schneider, K. L., Olendzki, B. C., Spates, C. R., & Ma, Y. (2008). Initial investigation of behavioral activation therapy for co-morbid major depressive disorder and obesity. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45(3), 410–415.Google Scholar
  276. Pagoto, S. L., Curtin, C., Lemon, L., Bandini, L. G., Schneider, K., Bodenlos, J. S., et al. (2009). Association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in the US population. Obesity, 17(3), 539–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Pagoto, S. L., Lemon, S. C., Schneider, K., Bodenlos, J. S., & Ma, Y. (2008). Association of ­post-traumatic stress disorder and obesity in a nationally representative sample. Obesity, 16(Suppl 1), S94.Google Scholar
  278. Pagoto, S. L., Schneider, K. L., Oleski, J. L., Luciani, J. M., Bodenlos, J. S., & Whited, M. C., (2011). Male inclusion in randomized controlled trials of lifestyle weight loss interventions. Obesity (Silver Spring), [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  279. Pagoto, S. L., Spring, B., Cook, J. W., McChargue, D., & Schneider, K. (2006). High BMI and reduced frequency and enjoyment of pleasant events. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(7), 1421–1431.Google Scholar
  280. Painot, D., Jotterand, S., Kammer, A., Fossati, M., & Golay, A. (2001). Simultaneous nutritional cognitive–behavioural therapy in obese patients. Patient Education and Counseling, 42(1), 47–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Patten, S. B., Williams, J. V., Lavorato, D. H., Brown, L., McLaren, L., & Eliasziw, M. (2009). Major depression, antidepressant medication and the risk of obesity. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78(3), 182–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Pauli-Pott, U., Albayrak, O., Hebebrand, J., & Pott, W. (2010). Does inhibitory control capacity in overweight and obese children and adolescents predict success in a weight-reduction program? European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(2), 135–141.Google Scholar
  283. Pecoraro, N. C., Reyes, F., Gomez, F., Bhargava, A., & Dallman, M. F. (2004). Chronic stress promotes palatable feeding, which reduces signs of stress: Feedforward and feedback effects of chronic stress. Endocrinology, 145(8), 3754–3762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Perkonigg, A., Owashi, T., Stein, M. B., Kirschbaum, C., & Wittchen, H. U. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder and obesity: Evidence for a risk association. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(1), 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Pervanidou, P., & Chrousos, G. P. (2010). Neuroendocrinology of post-traumatic stress disorder. Progress in Brain Research, 182, 149–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Peterson, C. B., Crow, S. J., Nugent, S., Mitchell, J. E., Engbloom, S., & Mussell, M. P. (2000). Predictors of treatment outcome for binge eating disorder. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 28(2), 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Petry, N. M., Barry, D., Pietrzak, R. H., & Wagner, J. A. (2008). Overweight and obesity are associated with psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(3), 288–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Pickering, R. P., Grant, B. F., Chou, S. P., & Compton, W. M. (2007). Are overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity associated with psychopathology? Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(7), 998–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Pike, K. M., Dohm, F. A., Striegel-Moore, R. H., Wilfley, D. E., & Fairburn, C. G. (2001). A comparison of black and white women with binge eating disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(9), 1455–1460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Pirke, K. M., Platte, P., Laessle, R., Seidl, M., & Fichter, M. M. (1992). The effect of a mental challenge test of plasma norepinephrine and cortisol in bulimia nervosa and in controls. Biological Psychiatry, 32(2), 202–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Poulin, M. J., Chaput, J. P., Simard, V., Vincent, P., Bernier, J., Gauthier, Y., et al. (2007). Management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: Prospective naturalistic study of the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(12), 980–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Puhl, R. M., & Brownell, K. D. (2006). Confronting and coping with weight stigma: An investigation of overweight and obese adults. Obesity (Silver Spring), 14(10), 1802–1815.Google Scholar
  293. Puhl, R. M., & Heuer, C. A. (2009). The stigma of obesity: A review and update. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(5), 941–964.Google Scholar
  294. Puhl, R. M., Moss-Racusin, C. A., Schwartz, M. B., & Brownell, K. D. (2008). Weight stigmatization and bias reduction: Perspectives of overweight and obese adults. Health Education Research, 23(2), 347–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Raadsheer, F. C., Hoogendijk, W. J., Stam, F. C., Tilders, F. J., & Swaab, D. F. (1994). Increased numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of depressed patients. Neuroendocrinology, 60(4), 436–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Raeder, M. B., Bjelland, I., Vollset, S. E., & Steen, V. M. (2006). Obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: The Hordaland Health Study. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 1974–1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Ramacciotti, C. E., Coli, E., Passaglia, C., Lacorte, M., Pea, E., & Dell’Osso, L. (2000). Binge eating disorder: Prevalence and psychopathological features in a clinical sample of obese people in Italy. Psychiatry Research, 94(2), 131–138.Google Scholar
  298. Rand, C. S., Macgregor, A. M., & Stunkard, A. J. (1997). The night eating syndrome in the general population and among postoperative obesity surgery patients. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 22(1), 65–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24(12), 1726–1737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Ray, E. C., Nickels, M. W., Sayeed, S., & Sax, H. C. (2003). Predicting success after gastric bypass: The role of psychosocial and behavioral factors. Surgery, 134(4), 555–563; discussion 563–564.Google Scholar
  301. Reas, D. L., & Grilo, C. M. (2007). Timing and sequence of the onset of overweight, dieting, and binge eating in overweight patients with binge eating disorder. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(2), 165–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Reas, D. L., & Grilo, C. M. (2008). Review and meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy for binge-eating disorder. Obesity (Silver Spring), 16(9), 2024–2038.Google Scholar
  303. Reuter, M., Schmitz, A., Corr, P., & Hennig, J. (2006). Molecular genetics support Gray’s personality theory: The interaction of COMT and DRD2 polymorphisms predicts the behavioural approach system. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 9(2), 155–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Rexrode, K. M., Pradhan, A., Manson, J. E., Buring, J. E., & Ridker, P. M. (2003). Relationship of total and abdominal adiposity with CRP and IL-6 in women. Annals of Epidemiology, 13(10), 674–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Ricca, V., Castellini, G., Lo Sauro, C., Rotella, C. M., & Faravelli, C. (2009). Zonisamide combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in binge eating disorder: A one-year follow-up study. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 6(11), 23–28.Google Scholar
  306. Roberts, R. E., Deleger, S., Strawbridge, W. J., & Kaplan, G. A. (2003). Prospective association between obesity and depression: Evidence from the Alameda County Study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27(4), 514–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Roberts, R. E., Kaplan, G. A., Shema, S. J., & Strawbridge, W. J. (2000). Are the obese at greater risk for depression? American Journal of Epidemiology, 152(2), 163–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Rodriguez-Hernandez, H., Morales-Amaya, U. A., Rosales-Valdez, R., Rivera-Hinojosa, F., Rodriguez-Moran, M., & Guerrero-Romero, F. (2009). Adding cognitive behavioural treatment to either low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets: Differential short-term effects. The British Journal of Nutrition, 102(12), 1847–1853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Roehrig, M., Masheb, R. M., White, M. A., & Grilo, C. M. (2009). The metabolic syndrome and behavioral correlates in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(3), 481–486.Google Scholar
  310. Rogers, N. L., Dinges, D. F., Allison, K. C., Maislin, G., Martino, N., O’Reardon, J. P., et al. (2006). Assessment of sleep in women with night eating syndrome. Sleep, 29(6), 814–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Rohde, P., Ichikawa, L., Simon, G. E., Ludman, E. J., Linde, J. A., Jeffery, R. W., et al. (2008). Associations of child sexual and physical abuse with obesity and depression in middle-aged women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(9), 878–887.Google Scholar
  312. Rosenheck, R. A., Davis, S., Covell, N., Essock, S., Swartz, M., Stroup, S., et al. (2009). Does switching to a new antipsychotic improve outcomes? Data from the CATIE trial. Schizophrenia Research, 107(1), 22–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Rosmond, R., & Bjorntorp, P. (1998). Endocrine and metabolic aberrations in men with abdominal obesity in relation to anxio-depressive infirmity. Metabolism, 47(10), 1187–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Rosmond, R., Dallman, M. F., & Bjorntorp, P. (1998). Stress-related cortisol secretion in men: Relationships with abdominal obesity and endocrine, metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83(6), 1853–1859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Rostain, A. L., & Ramsay, J. R. (2006). A combined treatment approach for adults with ADHD – results of an open study of 43 patients. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10(2), 150–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Rummel-Kluge, C., Komossa, K., Schwarz, S., Hunger, H., Schmid, F., Lobos, C. A., et al. (2010). Head-to-head comparisons of metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 123(2–3), 225–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Rybakowski, J. K., & Twardowska, K. (1999). The dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test in depression in bipolar and unipolar affective illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33(5), 363–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Saarni, S. E., Saarni, S. I., Fogelholm, M., Heliovaara, M., Perala, J., Suvisaari, J., et al. (2009). Body composition in psychotic disorders: A general population survey. Psychological Medicine, 39(5), 801–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Sachs, G., Bowden, C., Calabrese, J. R., Ketter, T., Thompson, T., White, R., et al. (2006). Effects of lamotrigine and lithium on body weight during maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 8(2), 175–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Sachs, G. S., & Rush, A. J. (2003). Response, remission, and recovery in bipolar disorders: What are the realistic treatment goals? The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64(Suppl 6), 18–22; discussion 28.Google Scholar
  321. Safren, S. A. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral approaches to ADHD treatment in adulthood. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(Suppl 8), 46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Safren, S. A., Otto, M. W., Sprich, S., Winett, C. L., Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2005). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for ADHD in medication-treated adults with continued symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(7), 831–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Safren, S. A., Sprich, S., Mimiaga, M. J., Surman, C., Knouse, L., Groves, M., et al. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy vs relaxation with educational support for medication-treated adults with ADHD and persistent symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 304(8), 875–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Sarwer, D. B., & Thompson, J. K. (2002). Obesity and body image disturbance. In T. Wadden & A. J. Stunkard (Eds.), Handbook of obesity treatment (pp. 447–464). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  325. Sbrocco, T., Nedegaard, R. C., Stone, J. M., & Lewis, E. L. (1999). Behavioral choice treatment promotes continuing weight loss: Preliminary results of a cognitive-behavioral decision-based treatment for obesity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 260–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Schorr, S. G., Slooff, C. J., Postema, R., Van Oven, W., Schilthuis, M., Bruggeman, R., et al. (2008). A 12-month follow-up study of treating overweight schizophrenic patients with aripiprazole. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(3), 246–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Schule, C., Baghai, T. C., Eser, D., & Rupprecht, R. (2009). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system dysregulation and new treatment strategies in depression. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 9(7), 1005–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Schweickert, L. A., Strober, M., & Moskowitz, A. (1997). Efficacy of methylphenidate in bulimia nervosa co-morbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A case report. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 21(3), 299–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Scott, K. M., Bruffaerts, R., Simon, G. E., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., de Girolamo, G., et al. (2008). Obesity and mental disorders in the general population: Results from the world mental health surveys. International Journal of Obesity (London), 32(1), 192–200.Google Scholar
  330. Semanscin-Doerr, D. A., Windover, A., Ashton, K., & Heinberg, L. J. (2010). Mood disorders in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy patients: Does it affect early weight loss? Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, 6(2), 191–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Shah, A., Shen, N., & El-Mallakh, R. S. (2006). Weight gain occurs after onset of bipolar illness in overweight bipolar patients. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 18(4), 239–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Sharma, B., & Henderson, D. C. (2008). Sibutramine: Current status as an anti-obesity drug and its future perspectives. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 9(12), 2161–2173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Shea, A., Walsh, C., Macmillan, H., & Steiner, M. (2005). Child maltreatment and HPA axis dysregulation: Relationship to major depressive disorder and post traumatic stress disorder in females. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(2), 162–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Sim, L. A., McAlpine, D. E., Grothe, K. B., Himes, S. M., Cockerill, R. G., & Clark, M. M. (2010). Identification and treatment of eating disorders in the primary care setting. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(8), 746–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Simmonds, D. J., Pekar, J. J., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2008). Meta-analysis of Go/No-go tasks demonstrating that fMRI activation associated with response inhibition is task-dependent. Neuropsychologia, 46(1), 224–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Simon, G. E., Hunkeler, E., Fireman, B., Lee, J. Y., & Savarino, J. (2007). Risk of suicide attempt and suicide death in patients treated for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 9(5), 526–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Simon, G. E., Von Korff, M., Saunders, K., Miglioretti, D. L., Crane, P. K., van Belle, G., et al. (2006). Association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in the US adult population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(7), 824–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Smits, J. A., Rosenfield, D., Mather, A. A., Tart, C. D., Henriksen, C., & Sareen, J. (2010). Psychotropic medication use mediates the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders and obesity: Findings from a nationally representative sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(15), 1010–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Smolak, L., & Murnen, S. K. (2002). A meta-analytic examination of the relationship between child sexual abuse and eating disorders. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31(2), 136–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Gibbon, M., & First, M. B. (1992). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). I: History, rationale, and description. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(8), 624–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Spitzer, R. L., Yanovski, S., Wadden, T., Wing, R., Marcus, M. D., Stunkard, A., et al. (1993). Binge eating disorder: Its further validation in a multisite study. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13(2), 137–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Spurling, R. D., Lamberti, J. S., Olsen, D., Tu, X., & Tang, W. (2007). Changes in metabolic parameters with switching to aripiprazole from another second-generation antipsychotic: A retrospective chart review. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(3), 406–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Stecker, T., & Sparks, S. (2006). Prevalence of obese patients in a primary care setting. Obesity, 14, 373–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Stefaniak, T., Babinska, D., Trus, M., & Vingerhoets, A. (2007). The impact of history of sexual abuse on weight loss in gastric bypass patients. Psychosomatics, 48(3), 270–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Stevenson, C. S., Whitmont, S., Bornholt, L., Livesey, D., & Stevenson, R. J. (2002). A cognitive remediation programme for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36(5), 610–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Stone, A. A., Schwartz, J. E., Smyth, J., Kirschbaum, C., Cohen, S., Hellhammer, D., et al. (2001). Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of salivary free cortisol: A replication of flattened cycles for some individuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26(3), 295–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Strassnig, M., Brar, J. S., & Ganguli, R. (2003). Nutritional assessment of patients with ­schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29(2), 393–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Strassnig, M., Singh Brar, J., & Ganguli, R. (2005). Dietary fatty acid and antioxidant intake in community-dwelling patients suffering from schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 76(2–3), 343–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Striegel-Moore, R. H., Dohm, F. A., Kraemer, H. C., Schreiber, G. B., Taylor, C. B., & Daniels, S. R. (2007). Risk factors for binge-eating disorders: An exploratory study. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(6), 481–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Striegel-Moore, R. H., Franko, D. L., Thompson, D., Affenito, S., & Kraemer, H. (2006). Night eating: Prevalence and demographic correlates. Obesity, 14, 139–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Stunkard, A. J. (1959). Eating patterns and obesity. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 33, 284–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Stunkard, A. J., & Allison, K. C. (2003). Two forms of disordered eating in obesity: Binge eating and night eating. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27(1), 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Stunkard, A. J., Allison, K. C., Lundgren, J. D., Martino, N. S., Heo, M., Etemad, B., et al. (2006). A paradigm for facilitating pharmacotherapy at a distance: Sertraline treatment of the night eating syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(10), 1568–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Stunkard, A., Berkowitz, R., Wadden, T., Tanrikut, C., Reiss, E., & Young, L. (1996). Binge eating disorder and the night-eating syndrome. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 20(1), 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Stunkard, A. J., Grace, W. J., & Wolff, H. G. (1955). The night-eating syndrome; a pattern of food intake among certain obese patients. The American Journal of Medicine, 19(1), 78–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Takeuchi, H., Uchida, H., Suzuki, T., Watanabe, K., & Kashima, H. (2010). Changes in metabolic parameters following a switch to aripiprazole in Japanese patients with schizophrenia: One-year follow-up study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64(1), 104–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Tholin, S., Lindroos, A., Tynelius, P., Akerstedt, T., Stunkard, A. J., Bulik, C. M., et al. (2009). Prevalence of night eating in obese and nonobese twins. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(5), 1050–1055.Google Scholar
  358. Tiwari, A. K., Zai, C. C., Likhodi, O., Lisker, A., Singh, D., Souza, R. P., et al. (2010). A common polymorphism in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene is associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in Schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(6), 1315–1324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Torrent, C., Amann, B., Sanchez-Moreno, J., Colom, F., Reinares, M., Comes, M., et al. (2008). Weight gain in bipolar disorder: Pharmacological treatment as a contributing factor. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(1), 4–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Torres, S. J., & Nowson, C. A. (2007). Relationship between stress, eating behavior, and obesity. Nutrition, 23(11–12), 887–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Tsigos, C., & Chrousos, G. P. (2002). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors and stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(4), 865–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2010). Meridia (sibutramine): Market withdrawal due to risk of serious cardiovascular events. Retrieved January 3, 2011 from
  363. Uher, R., Mors, O., Hauser, J., Rietschel, M., Maier, W., Kozel, D., et al. (2011). Changes in body weight during pharmacological treatment of depression. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(3), 367–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Van Cauter, E., & Refetoff, S. (1985). Evidence for two subtypes of Cushing’s disease based on the analysis of episodic cortisol secretion. The New England Journal of Medicine, 312(21), 1343–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. van den Bos, R., & de Ridder, D. (2006). Evolved to satisfy our immediate needs: Self-control and the rewarding properties of food. Appetite, 47(1), 24–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Vander Wal, J. S., Waller, S. M., Klurfeld, D. M., McBurney, M. I., & Dhurandhar, N. V. (2005). Night eating syndrome: Evaluation of two screening instruments. Eating Behaviors, 6(1), 63–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Verma, S. K., Subramaniam, M., Liew, A., & Poon, L. Y. (2009). Metabolic risk factors in drug-naive patients with first-episode psychosis. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70(7), 997–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Vicennati, V., Pasqui, F., Cavazza, C., Pagotto, U., & Pasquali, R. (2009). Stress-related ­development of obesity and cortisol in women. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(9), 1678–1683.Google Scholar
  369. Vieweg, W. V., Julius, D. A., Bates, J., Quinn, J. F., III, Fernandez, A., Hasnain, M., et al. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for obesity among male military veterans. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116(6), 483–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Vinai, P., Allison, K. C., Cardetti, S., Carpegna, G., Ferrato, N., Masante, D., et al. (2008). Psychopathology and treatment of night eating syndrome: A review. Eating and Weight Disorders, 13(2), 54–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Vocks, S., Tuschen-Caffier, B., Pietrowsky, R., Rustenbach, S. J., Kersting, A., & Herpertz, S. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43(3), 205–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Vogelzangs, N., Kritchevsky, S. B., Beekman, A. T., Brenes, G. A., Newman, A. B., Satterfield, S., et al. (2010). Obesity and onset of significant depressive symptoms: Results from a prospective community-based cohort study of older men and women. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(4), 391–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Volkow, N. D., Wang, G. J., Kollins, S. H., Wigal, T. L., Newcorn, J. H., Telang, F., et al. (2009). Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: Clinical implications. Journal of American Medical Association, 302(10), 1084–1091.Google Scholar
  374. Wadden, T. A., Foreyt, J. P., Foster, G. D., Hill, J. O., Klein, S., O’Neil, P. M., et al. (2011). Weight loss with naltrexone SR/bupropion SR combination therapy as an adjunct to behavior modification: The COR-BMOD trial. Obesity, 19(1), 110–120.Google Scholar
  375. Wade, T. D., Bergin, J. L., Tiggemann, M., Bulik, C. M., & Fairburn, C. G. (2006). Prevalence and long-term course of lifetime eating disorders in an adult Australian twin cohort. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(2), 121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Walfish, S., Vance, D., & Fabricatore, A. N. (2007). Psychological evaluation of bariatric surgery applicants: Procedures and reasons for delay or denial of surgery. Obesity Surgery, 17(12), 1578–1583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Walker, E. A., Gelfand, A., Katon, W. J., Koss, M. P., Von Korff, M., Bernstein, D., et al. (1999). Adult health status of women with histories of childhood abuse and neglect. The American Journal of Medicine, 107(4), 332–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Wang, Y., & Beydoun, M. A. (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States – gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiologic Reviews, 29, 6–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Waring, M. E., & Lapane, K. L. (2008). Overweight in children and adolescents in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a national sample. Pediatrics, 122(1), e1–e6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Watson, S., Gallagher, P., Ritchie, J. C., Ferrier, I. N., & Young, A. H. (2004). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with bipolar disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 496–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Weber-Hamann, B., Hentschel, F., Kniest, A., Deuschle, M., Colla, M., Lederbogen, F., et al. (2002). Hypercortisolemic depression is associated with increased intra-abdominal fat. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(2), 274–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Weiden, P. J. (2007). Switching antipsychotics as a treatment strategy for antipsychotic-induced weight gain and dyslipidemia. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(Suppl 4), 34–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Weiden, P. J., Simpson, G. M., Potkin, S. G., & O’Sullivan, R. L. (2003). Effectiveness of switching to ziprasidone for stable but symptomatic outpatients with schizophrenia. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64(5), 580–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Wender, P. H. (1998). Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(Suppl 7), 76–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Werrij, M. Q., Jansen, A., Mulkens, S., Elgersma, H. J., Ament, A. J., & Hospers, H. J. (2009). Adding cognitive therapy to dietetic treatment is associated with less relapse in obesity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 67(4), 315–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Wildes, J. E., Kalarchian, M. A., Marcus, M. D., Levine, M. D., & Courcoulas, A. P. (2008). Childhood maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity in bariatric surgery candidates. Obesity Surgery, 18(3), 306–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Wilens, T. E., Spencer, T. J., & Biederman, J. (2002). A review of the pharmacotherapy of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 5(4), 189–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Wilfley, D. E., Friedman, M. A., Dounchis, J. Z., Stein, R. I., Welch, R. R., & Ball, S. A. (2000). Co-morbid psychopathology in binge eating disorder: Relation to eating disorder severity at baseline and following treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 641–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Williamson, D. F., Thompson, T. J., Anda, R. F., Dietz, W. H., & Felitti, V. (2002). Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26(8), 1075–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. Winstanley, C. A., Eagle, D. M., & Robbins, T. W. (2006). Behavioral models of impulsivity in relation to ADHD: Translation between clinical and preclinical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(4), 379–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Womble, L. G., Wadden, T. A., McGuckin, B. G., Sargent, S. L., Rothman, R. A., & Krauthamer-Ewing, E. S. (2004). A randomized controlled trial of a commercial internet weight loss program. Obesity Research, 12(6), 1011–1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Wonderlich, S. A., Gordon, K. H., Mitchell, J. E., Crosby, R. D., & Engel, S. G. (2009). The validity and clinical utility of binge eating disorder. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(8), 687–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Wonderlich-Tierney, A. L., & Vander Wal, J. S. (2010). The effects of social support and coping on the relationship between social anxiety and eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 11(2), 85–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Yager, J. (2008). Binge eating disorder: The search for better treatments. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(1), 4–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Yanovski, S. Z., Nelson, J. E., Dubbert, B. K., & Spitzer, R. L. (1993). Association of binge eating disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity in obese subjects. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(10), 1472–1479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Zellner, D. A., Loaiza, S., Gonzalez, Z., Pita, J., Morales, J., Pecora, D., et al. (2006). Food selection changes under stress. Physiology and Behavior, 87(4), 789–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sherry Pagoto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kristin Schneider
    • 1
  • Bradley M. Appelhans
    • 3
  • Carol Curtin
    • 1
  • Alexandra Hajduk
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Preventive Medicine and Behavioral SciencesRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations