Exadata doesn’t have a special way of executing parallel operations that is not available on other platforms running 11gR2 and 12c. However, parallel processing is a key component of Exadata because efficient handling of data warehouse workloads was a primary design goal for Exadata. In addition, because offloading/Smart Scan depends on direct path reads, which can be used by parallel query slaves, parallel operations take on a whole new importance. Traditionally, the efficient use of parallel query has required careful control of concurrency in order to maximize the use of available resources without overwhelming the system. Oracle’s previous attempts at throttling parallel operations to allow them to be used in multiuser environments have not been entirely successful. Version 11gR2 provided some new capabilities for controlling parallel operations. In particular, a queueing mechanism has been introduced that allows the number of concurrent parallel processes to be managed more effectively. This approach appears to be much better suited to allowing a high degree of parallelism without overwhelming the available resources than previous attempts. 11gR2 also introduced the ability for Oracle to automatically calculate a degree of parallelism on a statement-by-statement basis. Version 12c introduced a Parallel Statement Queueing enhancement and process memory usage control. Also introduced in version 12c is a Database Resource Manager (DBRM) directive which allows the critical queries to bypass the parallel statement queue, and a new database parameter that limits the total Program Global Area (PGA) size, for which the idea is to avoid excessive physical memory usage that leads to high rates of swapping.