Introduction to Java
One of the fundamental ways in which complexity can be handled is abstraction, which is applied in almost every discipline. For instance, abstract art is art that does not represent or imitate external reality or the objects of nature. As another example, some words are abstract, existing only in the mind, like truth or justice. In Java, abstraction allows developers to layer complex systems into manageable pieces by using class hierarchies that highlight the essential properties and behaviors of an object, differentiating it from other objects.