Liquid fuels dominated the transportation sector in the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, and they will continue to dominate that sector for at least the rest of the present decade. Over time, petroleum-based liquid fuels will relinquish their dominance, but there is no apparent sustainable liquid fuel option with the scalability to replace even half of global oil consumption. As noted in the previous chapter, ethanol is the most widely used biofuel in the world, yet the energy supplied by ethanol is less than 1% of the energy supplied by global oil production.
KeywordsCombustion Obesity Dioxide Depression Europe
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- i.Energy Information Administration (EIA), “Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Consumers,” accessed January 10, 2012, www.eia.gov /electricity/monthly/excel/epmxlfile5_3.xls.Google Scholar
- ii.Michael Copeland, “The Hydrogen Car Fights Back,” CNNMoney, October 14, 2009, http://money.cnn.com/2009/10/13/technology/hydrogen _car.fortune/.Google Scholar
- iii.Clive Matthew-Wilson, “The Emperor’s New Car,” The Dog and Lemon Guide, 2010, www.dogandlemon.com/articles/emperors-new-car.Google Scholar
- iv.J.D. Power and Associates, “Future Global Market Demand for Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles May Be Over-Hyped; Wild Card is China,” October 27, 2010, http://businesscenter.jdpower.com/news/pressrelease.aspx?ID=2010213.Google Scholar
- v.Dave Lee, “Nissan-Renault Head Carlos Ghosn’s Zero Emission Goal,” BBC World Service, February 9, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business /8501348.stm.Google Scholar
- vi.Dan Ferber, “Vehicle-to-Grid: A New Spin on Car Payments,” Miller-McCune.com, October 31, 2011, www.miller-mccune.com/environment /vehicle-to-grid-a-new-spin-on-car-payments-36697/.Google Scholar
- vii.Gil Carmichael, “Railways Fast and Cheapest Freight Transportation System,” Cargonews Asia, December 15, 2008, www.cargonewsasia.com /secured/article.aspx?id=38&article=17935.Google Scholar
- viii.Michael Robinson, “China’s New Industrial Revolution,” BBC News, August 1, 2010, www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-10792465.Google Scholar
- ix.Sustainable Urban Transit Project, “Copenhagen-A Modern Transport Policy for a Sustainable City,” accessed February 13, 2012, www.sutp.org /index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2777.Google Scholar
- x.Portland Bureau of Transportation, “Portland Bicycle Plan for 2030,” adopted February 11, 2010, available at www.portlandonline.com /transportation/index.cfm?c=44597.Google Scholar