Power Plays pp 181-197 | Cite as

Oil-Free Transportation

Alternatives to the Internal Combustion Engine
  • Robert Rapier


Liquid fuels dominated the transportation sector in the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, and they will continue to dominate that sector for at least the rest of the present decade. Over time, petroleum-based liquid fuels will relinquish their dominance, but there is no apparent sustainable liquid fuel option with the scalability to replace even half of global oil consumption. As noted in the previous chapter, ethanol is the most widely used biofuel in the world, yet the energy supplied by ethanol is less than 1% of the energy supplied by global oil production.


Electric Vehicle Hybrid Vehicle Bike Path Energy Information Administration Fuel Cell Vehicle 
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Copyright information

© Robert Rapier 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Rapier

There are no affiliations available

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