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It’s Nation Time in NewArk: Amiri Baraka and the Black Power Experiment in Newark, New Jersey

  • Komozi Woodard

Abstract

Pushing many of the feeble organizations aside, thousands of black youth stormed into militant Black Power organizations from coast to coast. Where there were only small Black Power organizations, they filled the ranks and made them bigger. Where there were no Black Power organizations in their locality, they established branches, and in that manner groups such as the Oakland Black Panther Party, the Los Angeles US Organization, and Amiri Baraka’s Committee for a Unified NewArk (CFUN) became national phenomena in 1968.

Keywords

Black Community Black People Urban Renewal Black Panther Party Police Brutality 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Amiri Baraka, “From: The Book of Life,” Raise, Race, Rays, Raze: Essays Since 1965 (New York: Random House, 1971); Amilcar Cabrai, Return to the Source (New York: Monthly Review Press/African Information Service, 1973).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paul Delany, “Conciliator at Black Parley,” New York Times, March 13, 1972, 30; Vincent Harding, The Other American Revolution (Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, UCLA, 1980), 215.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Manuel Castells, The City and the Grassroots (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), 54.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Joe R. Feagin and Harland Hahn, Ghetto Revolts (New York: Macmillan, 1973), 105–108.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Amiri Baraka, The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka (New York: Freundlich, 1984), 191;Google Scholar
  6. LeRoi Jones, Blues People (New York: William Morrow, 1963).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chuck Stone, Black Political Power in America (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968), 125.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    The best study of this background is in Robert Curvin, “The Persistent Minority: The Black Political Experience in Newark” (Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1975); reprinted (Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1975).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    For Chicago, see Thomas Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1991)Google Scholar
  10. and Arnold Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto (Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 1983); for Detroit,Google Scholar
  11. see Thomas Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1996).Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    Edward J. Wolak, “A Political Study of the Negro in Newark, New Jersey” (senior thesis, Princeton University, May 1948);Google Scholar
  13. Harold Kaplan, Urban Renewal Politics: Slum Clearance in Newark (New York: Columbia UP, 1963), 155–156.Google Scholar
  14. 11.
    Mindy Thompson, The National Negro Labor Council: A History. Occasional Paper No. 27 (New York: American Institute for Marxist Studies, 1978).Google Scholar
  15. 12.
    Robert Allen, Black Awakening in Capitalist America (New York: Anchor, 1970), 131.Google Scholar
  16. 13.
    A. D. Smith, “‘Ideas’ and ‘Structure’ in the Formation of Independence Ideals,” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 3 (1973): 19–39, citation 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 14.
    Ron Porambo, No Cause for Indictment (New York: Holt, 1971), 101.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) & Black Power Politics (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999), 80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Theodore R. Hudson, “The Trial of LeRoi Jones,” in Kimberly Benston, Imamu Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones): A Collection of Critical Essays (Engelwood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978), 49–50.Google Scholar
  20. 24.
    Amiri Baraka, Raise, Race, Rays, Raze (New York: Random House, 1971), 52; Baraka, The Autobiography, 264.Google Scholar
  21. 32.
    See Herbert Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom (New York: Vintage, 1976).Google Scholar
  22. 33.
    Amiri Baraka, “Creation of the New Ark,” in The Black Power Movement: Amiri Baraka from the Black Arts to Black Radicalism, Komozi Woodard, ed. (Bethesda, Md.: University Publication Association, 2000). This is Baraka’s unpublished but invaluable history of the Newark movement.Google Scholar
  23. 40.
    Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (New York: Vintage, 1967).Google Scholar
  24. 42.
    Harry Haywood, Black Bolshevik (Chicago: Liberator Press, 1978); see Woodard, A Nation Within a Nation, 107–108.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard, with Matthew Countryman 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Komozi Woodard

There are no affiliations available

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