The Twentieth Century: The State Embedded?

  • Graeme Gill


The twentieth century saw the expansion of the state to its greatest limits, penetrating further into society and controlling more of the lives of the people who lived under it than ever before. The principal form this took in the West was the capitalist welfare state; in the East, the communist state. Linked with this was a change in the state’s formal relationship with the people over whom it ruled, a change reflected in the rise of democratic politics and the designation of those people as ‘citizens’. Both the development of the state and the rise of citizenship continued trends begun as a result of industrialization and discussed in Chapter 4. These changes embedded the state more firmly into society than it had ever been before and, in the welfare (but not communist) states, strengthened the ties of interdependence.


Depression Europe Income Arena Nism 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
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  2. 2.
    For a recent study, see Michael Sullivan, The Development of the British Welfare State (London, Prentice-Hall, 1996).Google Scholar
  3. 8.
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    Evelyne Huber and John D. Stephens, Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Parties and Policies in Global Markets (Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 2001), p. 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    On the development of the American welfare state, see Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers. The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge, MA, The Belknap Press, 1992)Google Scholar
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    Figures are based on Gavin Drewry and Tony Butcher, The Civil Service Today (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1988).Google Scholar
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    Ferenc Feher, Agnes Heller and Gyorgy Markus, Dictatorship Over Needs (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1983).Google Scholar
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    David Lane, Soviet Economy and Society (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1985), pp. 64–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Graeme Gill 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graeme Gill
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Economics and Political ScienceThe University of SydneyAustralia

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