The Twentieth Century: The State Embedded?

  • Graeme Gill


The twentieth century saw the expansion of the state to its greatest limits, penetrating further into society and controlling more of the lives of the people who lived under it than ever before. The principal form this took in the West was the capitalist welfare state; in the East, the communist state. Linked with this was a change in the state’s formal relationship with the people over whom it ruled, a change reflected in the rise of democratic politics and the designation of those people as ‘citizens’. Both the development of the state and the rise of citizenship continued trends begun as a result of industrialization and discussed in Chapter 4. These changes embedded the state more firmly into society than it had ever been before and, in the welfare (but not communist) states, strengthened the ties of interdependence.


Depression Europe Income Arena Nism 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 1.
    T.H. Marshall, Citizenship and Social Class (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1950).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    For a recent study, see Michael Sullivan, The Development of the British Welfare State (London, Prentice-Hall, 1996).Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    Gosta Esping-Andersen, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    Evelyne Huber and John D. Stephens, Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Parties and Policies in Global Markets (Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 2001), p. 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 11.
    On the development of the American welfare state, see Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers. The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge, MA, The Belknap Press, 1992)Google Scholar
  6. Edward D. Berkowitz, America’s Welfare State. From Roosevelt to Reagan (Baltimore, MD, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991)Google Scholar
  7. Margaret Weir, Ann Shoal and Theda Skocpol (eds), The Politics of Social Policy in the United States (Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1988), esp. Part 1.Google Scholar
  8. 15.
    Figures are based on Gavin Drewry and Tony Butcher, The Civil Service Today (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1988).Google Scholar
  9. For a longer term view, see Geoffrey K. Fry, The Growth of Government. The Development of Ideas about the Role of the State and the Machinery and Functions of Government in Britain since 1780 (London, Frank Cass, 1979)Google Scholar
  10. R.G.S. Brown and D.R. Steel, The Administrative Process in Britain (London, Methuen, 1970).Google Scholar
  11. Richard P. Appelbaum and Jeffrey Henderson (eds), States and Development in the Asian Pacific Rim (Newbury Park, CA, Sage, 1992)Google Scholar
  12. Robert Wade, Governing the Market. Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization (Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1990)Google Scholar
  13. Linda Weiss, The Myth of the Powerless State. Governing the Economy in a Global Era (Cambridge, Polity Press, 1998)Google Scholar
  14. Linda Weiss and John M. Hobson, States and Economic Development. A Comparative Historical Analysis (Cambridge, Polity Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  15. 30.
    Ferenc Feher, Agnes Heller and Gyorgy Markus, Dictatorship Over Needs (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1983).Google Scholar
  16. 33.
    David Lane, Soviet Economy and Society (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1985), pp. 64–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Graeme Gill 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graeme Gill
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Economics and Political ScienceThe University of SydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations