The Italian Peninsula

  • Alexander Grab
Part of the European History in Perspective book series (EUROHIP)


Prior to the Napoleonic invasion into northern Italy in 1796, the Italian Peninsula was divided into ten states: the Kingdom of Sardinia, including Piedmont; the Duchy of Milan (part of the Habsburg Empire); the republics of Venice, Genoa, and Lucca; the Papal State; the duchies of Modena and Parma; the Grand-Duchy of Tuscany; and the Kingdom of Naples, which included Sicily. These states differed substantially from each other. Various dynasties and social elites ruled over them, and they possessed different legal systems, economic structures, administrative institutions, currencies, and spoken dialects. Provincial and municipal rivalries and competition between city and country intensified the diversity.


French Revolution Reform Program Italian Peninsula Secret Society Civil Marriage 
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© Alexander Grab 2003

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  • Alexander Grab

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