Globalization and Europeanization
Globalization is probably the most contested concept in contemporary social science. Globalization gurus like Tony Giddens assert that the ‘old globalization’ debate about whether globalization is taking place is over; the reality of globalization has to be accepted and we should be moving on to a ‘new globalization’ debate about appropriate responses to it. However, whether there has really been a shift from a long-running process of internationalization, interrupted by a long phase of protection from the First World War to the 1970s, to something genuinely different that we can label globalization remains contested. Indeed, some commentators saw that the events of 11 September 2001 might bring about the demise of globalization (Roach, 2001). In any event, this is not simply an academic debate about appropriate labels; globalization constrains the range of economic policy options available to nation states, and the most extreme versions would deny any autonomy to the nation state in economic policy matters at all.
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