The European Civil War: Reds versus Whites in Russia and Spain 1917–39

  • Francisco J. Romero Salvadó
Part of the Problems in Focus Series book series (PFS)


When hostilities broke out in Europe in 1914, the rulers of the belligerent countries expected that a fast and effective victory on the battlefield would silence the domestic opposition and rally the support of their citizens. In fact, this proved to be a huge miscalculation. The war drove European society to the edge of an abyss, ushering in a new era of political instability, ideological polarisation and popular strife that exploded into even greater brutality in 1939.


Peace Negotiation Foreign Intervention Popular Front White Officer Foreign Legion 
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Copyright information

© Francisco J. Romero Salvadó 2002

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  • Francisco J. Romero Salvadó

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