The European Civil War: Reds versus Whites in Russia and Spain 1917–39

  • Francisco J. Romero Salvadó
Part of the Problems in Focus Series book series (PFS)

Abstract

When hostilities broke out in Europe in 1914, the rulers of the belligerent countries expected that a fast and effective victory on the battlefield would silence the domestic opposition and rally the support of their citizens. In fact, this proved to be a huge miscalculation. The war drove European society to the edge of an abyss, ushering in a new era of political instability, ideological polarisation and popular strife that exploded into even greater brutality in 1939.

Keywords

Europe Steam Turkey Lution Arena 

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Copyright information

© Francisco J. Romero Salvadó 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco J. Romero Salvadó

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