Political Participation and Protest
Until the reforms began in the late 1970s, China was distinctive for political participation mobilized by the party leadership to show public support for their policies. This chapter looks first at the distinctive features of sanctioned participation under Mao Zedong, such as mass campaigns and the use of role models, and how this participation has changed during the reform period. The remainder of the chapter looks at the existing mechanisms for citizen participation such as sanctioned mass organizations, electoral participation and membership in NGOs. The chapter concludes with an analysis of dissent and protest both within the party and outside.
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