Production of Protein-Enriched Feed Using Agro-Industrial Residues as Substrates

  • J. Obeta Ugwuanyi
  • Brian McNeil
  • Linda M. Harvey

Abstract

Agricultural and food industry residues, refuse and wastes constitute a significant proportion (estimated to amount to over 30%) of world wide agricultural productivity. These wastes, include lignocellulosic materials, fruit and vegetable wastes, sugar industry wastes as well as animal and fisheries operations refuse and wastes. They represent valuable biomass and potential solutions to problems of animal nutrition and world wide supply of protein and calories if appropriate technologies can be deployed for their valorization by protein enrichment. Technologies available for protein enrichment of these wastes include solid substrate fermentation, ensiling and high solid or slurry processes. Technologies to be deployed for the reprocessing of these wastes will need to take account of the peculiarities of individual wastes and the environment in which they are generated, reprocessed and used. In particular such technologies need to deliver products that are safe not just for animal feed use but also from the perspective of human feeding. The use of organisms that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for the protein enrichment and reprocessing of waste will enhance user confidence

Keywords

Protein-enrichment Solid state fermentation Silage-making Liquid process Slurry-process 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abu OA, Tewe OO, Losel DM, Onifade AA (2000) Changes in lipid, fatty acids and protein composition of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) after solid-state fungal fermentation. Bioresource Technology 72: 189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adeyemi AO, Eruvbetine D, Oguntona T, Dipeolu MA, Ogunbiade JA (2007) Enhancing the nutritional value of whole cassava root meal by rumen filtrate fermentation. Archivos de Zootecnia 56: 261–264Google Scholar
  3. Albuquerque PM, Koch F, Trossini TG, Esposito E, Ninow JL (2006) Production of Rhizopus oligosporus protein by solid state fermentation of apple pomace. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 49: 91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloui F, Abid N, Roussos S, Sayadi S (2007) Decolorization of semisolid olive residues of “alperujo” during the solid state fermentation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Aspergillus niger. Biochemical Engineering Journal 35: 120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amar B, Philip R, Bright SIS (2006) Efficacy of fermented prawn shell waste as a feed ingredient for Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus. Aquaculture Nutrition 12: 433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antai SP, Mbongo PM (1994) Utilization of cassava peels as substrate for crude protein formation. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 46: 345–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anupama RP (2001) Studies on production of single cell protein by Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation of rice bran. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 44: 79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Araujo LD, Medeiros AN, Neto AP, Oliveira LD, da Silva FLH (2005) Protein enrichment of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 48: 161–168Google Scholar
  9. Arvanitoyannis IS, Kassaveti A (2008) Fish industry waste: treatments, environmental impacts, current and potential uses. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 43:726–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arvanitoyannis IS, Ladas D (2008) Meat waste treatment methods and potential uses International Journal of Food Science and Technology 43: 543–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arvidsson K, Gustavsson A-M, Martinsson K (2008) Effect of conservation method on fatty acid composition of silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology doi:10.1016/ j.anifeedsci.2008.04.003Google Scholar
  12. Balagopalan C (1996) Improving the nutritional value of cassava by solid state fermentation: CTCRI experiences. Journal of Scientific and Industrial research 55: 479–482Google Scholar
  13. Bampidis VA, Robinson PH (2006) Citrus by-products as ruminant feeds: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 128: 175–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Banik S, Nandi R (2004) Effect of supplementation of rice straw with biogas residual slurry manure on the yield, protein and mineral contents of oyster mushroom. Industrial Crops and Products 20: 311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Basu S, Gaur R, Gomes J, Sreekrishnan TR, Bisaria VS (2002) Effect of seed culture on solid-state bioconversion of wheat straw by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for animal feed production. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 93: 25–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Berrocal M, Ball AS, Huerta S, Barrasa JM, Hernandez M, Perez-Leblic MI, Arias ME (2000) Biological upgrading of wheat straw through solid-state fermentation with Streptomyces cyaneus. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 54: 764–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhalla TC, Joshi M (1994) Protein enrichment of apple pomace by coculture of cellulolytic molds and yeasts. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10: 116–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bisaria VS (1998) Bioprocessing of agro-residues to value added products. In A.M. Alexander (ed.) Bioconversion of waste materials to industrial products Blackie Academic and Professional, London.Google Scholar
  19. Bonatti M, Karnopp P, Soares HM, Furlan SA (2004) Evaluation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju nutritional characteristics when cultivated in different lignocellulosic wastes. Food Chemistry 88: 425–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bramorski A, Soccol CR, Christen P, Revah S (1998) Fruity aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid cultures from agro-industrial wastes. Revista de Microbiologia 29: 208–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brand D, Pandey A, Rodriguez-Leon JA, Roussos S, Brand I, Soccol CR (2001) Packed bed column fermenter and kinetic modeling for upgrading the nutritional quality of coffee husk in solid-state fermentation. Biotechnology Progress 17: 1065–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brook EJ, Stanton WA, Wallbridge A (1969) Fermentation methods for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fementation in rural conditions fermentation. Acta Horticultural 375: 217–224.Google Scholar
  23. Cao L, Wang W, Yang C, Yang Y, Diana J, Yakupitiyage A, Luo Z, Li D (2007) Application of microbial phytase in fish feed Enzyme and Microbial Technology 40: 497–507Google Scholar
  24. Carmona, E.C., Fialho, M.B., Buchgnani, E.B., Coelho, G.D., Brocheto-Braga, M.R., Jorge, J.A., 2005. Production, purification and characterization of a minor form of xylanase from Aspergillus versicolor. Process Biochemistry 40: 359–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cayuela ML, Mondini C, Sanchez-Monedero MA, Roig A (2008) Chemical properties and hydrolytic enzyme activities for the characterisation of two-phase olive mill wastes composting. Bioresource Technology 99: 4255–4262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Certik M, Slavikova L, Masrnova S, Sajbidor J (2006) Enhancement of nutritional value of cereals with gamma-linolenic acid by fungal solid-state fermentations. Food Technology and Biotechnology 44: 75–82Google Scholar
  27. Chanda S, Chakrabatri S, (1996) Plant origin liquid waste: a resource for single cell protein production by yeast. Bioresource Technology 57: 51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chaudhary N, Sharma CB (2005) Production of citric acid and single cell protein from agrowaste. National Academy Science Letters-India 28: 187–191Google Scholar
  29. Chaudhrya SM, Fontenot JP, Naseer Z (1998) Effect of deep stacking and ensiling broiler litter on chemical composition and pathogenic organisms. Animal Feed Science and Technology 74: 155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Choi MH, Ji GE, Koh KH, Ryu YW, Jo DH, Park YH (2002) Use of waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for yeast biomass production. Bioresource Technology 83: 251–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Choi MH, Park YH (1999) Growth of Pichia guilliermondii A9, an osmotolerant yeast, in waste brine generated from kimchi production. Bioresource Technology 70: 231–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Choi, MH, Park YH (2003) Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage. Biomass and Bioenergy 25: 221–226Google Scholar
  33. Christodoulou V, Bampidis VA, Israilides CJ, Robinson PH, Giouzelyiannis A, Vlyssides A (2008) Nutritional value of fermented olive wastes in growing lamb rations. Animal Feed Science and Technology 141: 375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coello N, Montiel E, Concepcion M, Christen P (2002) Optimization of a culture medium containing fish silage for L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Bioresource Technology 85: 207–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Colombatto D, Mould FL, Bhat MK, Phipps RH, Owen E (2004) In vitro evaluation of fibrolytic enzymes as additives for maize (Zea mays L) silage: III. Comparison of enzymes derived from psychrophilic, mesophilic or thermophilic sources. Animal Feed Science and Technology 111: 145–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Correia R, Magalhaes M, Macedo G (2007) Protein enrichment of pineapple waste with Saccharomyces cerevisiae by solid state bioprocessing Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 66: 259–262Google Scholar
  37. Couto SR, Sanroman MA (2005) Application of solid-state fermentation to ligninolytic enzyme production- review. Biochemical Engineering Journal 22: 211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Couto SR, Sanroman MA (2006) Application of solid-state fermentation to food industry-a review. Journal of Food Engineering 76: 291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Damasceno S, Cereda MP, Pastore GM, Oliveira JG (2003) Production of volatile compounds by Geotrichum fragrans using cassava wastewater as substrate. Process Biochemistry 39: 411–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Das H, Singh SK (2004) Useful byproducts from cellulosic wastes of agriculture and food industry – A critical appraisal. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 44: 77–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Daubresse PS, Gheyen NS, Meyer JA (1987) A process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions. Biotecthnology and Bioenergy 29: 962–968Google Scholar
  42. De Arruda LF, Borghesi R, Oetterer M (2007) Use of fish waste as silage – A review. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 50: 879–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. De Gregorio A, Mandalari G, Arena N, Nucita F, Tripodo MM, Lo Curto RB (2002) SCP and crude pectinase production by slurry-state fermentation of lemon pulps. Bioresource Technology 83: 89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Holanda JS, De Oliveira AJ, Ferreira AC (1998). Protein enrichment of cashew waste with yeast for animal alimentation. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 33: 787–792Google Scholar
  45. De Villiers GH, Pretorius WA (2001) Abattoir effluent treatment and protein production. Water Science and Technology 43: 243–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. DeFelice B, Pontecorvo G, Carfagna M (1997) Degradation of waste waters from olive oil mills by Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 and Pseudomonas putida. Acta Biotechnologica 17: 231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dong NTK, Elwinger K, Lindberg JE, Ogle RB (2005) Effect of replacing soybean meal with soya waste and fish meal with ensiled shrimp waste on the performance of growing crossbred ducks. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 18: 825–834Google Scholar
  48. Dorado J, Almendros G, Camarero S, Martinez AT, Vares T, Hatakka A (1999) Transformation of wheat straw in the course of solid-state fermentation by four ligninolytic basidiomycetes. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 25: 605–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Duru CC, Uma NU (2003a) Protein enrichment of solid waste from cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) cormel processing using Aspergillus oryzae obtained from cormel flour. African Journal of Biotechnology 2: 228–232Google Scholar
  50. Duru CC, Uma NU (2003b) Production of fungal biomass from cormel process waste-water of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L) Schott) using Aspergillus oryzae obtained from cormel flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83: 850–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Echevarria J Leon JAR, Espinosa ME, Delgado G (1991) Optimization of solid-state fermentation of sugar-cane by Aspergillus niger considering particles size effect. Acta Biotechnologica 11: 15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ejiofor AO, Chisti Y, Moo-Young M (1996) Culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on hydrolyzed waste cassava starch for production of baking-quality yeast. Enzyme Microbial Technology 18: 519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. El Boushy AR (1991) House-fly pupae and poultry manure converters for animal feed: A review. Bioresource Technology 38: 45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. El Jalil MH, Faid M, Elyachioui M (2001) A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient. Biomass and Bioenergy 21: 301–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eun JS, Beauchemin KA, Hong SH, Bauer MW (2006) Exogenous enzymes added to untreated or ammoniated rice straw: effects on in vitro fermentation characteristics and degradability. Animal Feed Science and Technology 131: 87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Evers DJ, Carroll DJ (1996) Preservation of crab or shrimp waste as silage for cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology 59: 233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Evers DJ, Carroll DJ (1998) Ensiling salt-preserved shrimp waste with grass straw and molasses. Animal Feed Science and Technology 71: 241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fagbemi AO, Ijah UJJ (2006) Microbial population and biochemical changes during production of protein-enriched fufu. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 22: 635–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Faid M, Zouiten A, Elmarrakchi A, AchkariBegdouri A (1997) Biotransformation of fish waste into a stable feed ingredient. Food Chemistry 60: 13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fan L, Pandey A, Mohan R, Soccol CR (2000) Use of various coffee industry residues for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation. Acta Biotechnologica 20:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ferrer J, Paez G, Marmol Z, Ramones E, Garcia H, Forster CF (1996) Acid hydrolysis of shrimp-shell wastes and the production of single cell protein from the hydrolysate. Bioresource Technology 57: 55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gaitan-Hernandez R, Esqueda M, Gutierrez A, Sanchez A, Beltran-Garcia M, Mata G (2006) Bioconversion of agrowastes by Lentinula edodes: the high potential of viticulture residues. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 71: 432–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Garrido Hoyos SE, Martinez Nieto L, Rubio FC, Cormenzana AR (2002) Kinetics of aerobic treatment of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) with Aspergillus terreus. Process Biochemistry 37: 1169–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gelinas P, Barrette J (2007) Protein enrichment of potato processing waste through yeast fermentation. Bioresource Technology 98: 1138–1143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gerona LJ, Zeoula LM,Vidotti RM, Matsushita M, Kazama R, Caldas Neto SF, Fereli F (2007) Chemical characterization, dry matter and crude protein ruminal degradability and in vitro intestinal digestion of acid and fermented silage from tilapia filleting residue. Animal Feed Science and Technology 136: 226–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gharsallah N (1993) Production of single cell protein from olive mill waste-water by yeasts. Environmental Technology 14: 391–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ghofar A, Ogawa S, Kokugan T (2005) Production of L-lactic acid from fresh cassava roots slurried with tofu liquid waste by streptococcus bovis. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 100: 606–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goncalves LU, Viegas EMM (2007) Production, characterization and biological evaluation of shrimp waste silage for Nile tilapia. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 59: 1021–1028Google Scholar
  69. Graminha EBN, Goncalves AZL, Pirota RDPB, Balsalobre MAA, Da Silva R, Gomes E (2007) Enzyme production by solid-state fermentation: Application to animal nutrition. Animal Feed Science and Technology doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.09.029Google Scholar
  70. Gutierrez-Correa M, Portal L, Moreno P, Tengerdy RP (1999) Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse. Bioresource Technology 68: 173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hachicha S, Cegarrab J, Sellamia F, Hachichaa R, Drirac N, Medhiouba K, Ammara E (2008) Elimination of polyphenols toxicity from olive mill wastewater sludge by its co-composting with sesame bark. Journal of Hazardous Material doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.04.066Google Scholar
  72. Haddadin MS, Abdulrahim SM, Al-Khawaldeh GY, Robinson RK (1999) Solid state fermentation of waste pomace from olive processing. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 74: 613–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hammoumi A, Faid M, El Yachioui M, Amarouch H (1998) Characterization of fermented fish waste used in feeding trials with broilers. Process Biochemistry 33: 423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hang YD, Woodams EE (1986) A solid state fermentation of apple pomace for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger. Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2: 283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hang YD, Woodams EE, Hang LE (2003) Utilization of corn silage juice by Klyuveromyces marxianus. Bioresource Technology 86: 305–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hang YD, Woodams EE, Luh BS (1987) Microbial production of citric acid by solid state fermentation of kiwi fruit peel. Journal of Food Science 52: 226–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Horn SJ, Aspmo SI, Eijsink VGH (2005) Growth of Lactobacillus plantarum in media containing hydrolysates of fish viscera. Journal of Applied Microbiology 99: 1082–1089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Horton D (1988) Underground crops: long-term trends in production of roots and tubers. Morrilton AR: Winrock International, USA. 132ppGoogle Scholar
  79. Iconomou D, Kandylis K, Israilidis C, Nikokrys P (1998) Protein enhancement of sugar beet pulp by fermentation and estimation of protein degradability in the rumen of sheep. Small Ruminant Research 27: 55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Illanes A, Aroca G, Cabello L, Acevedo F (1992) Solid substrate fermentation of leached beet pulp with Trichoderma-aureoviride. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 8:488–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Iluyemi FB, Hanafi MM, Radziah O, Kamarudin MS (2006) Fungal solid state culture of palm kernel cake. Bioresource Technology 97: 477–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Israilides CJ, Iconomou D, Kandylis K, Nikokyris P (1994) Fermentability of sugar-beet pulp and its acceptability in mice. Bioresource Technology 47: 97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Israilides CJ, Vlyssides AG, Mourafeti VN, Karrouni G (1997) Olive oil wastewater treatment with the use of an electrolysis system. Bioresource Technology 61: 163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jacob Z (1991) Enrichment of wheat bran by Rhodotorula gracilis through solid state fermentation. Folia Microbiologica 36: 86–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. John RP, Nampoothiri KM, Pandey A (2006) Solid-state fermentation for L-lactic acid production from agro wastes using Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Process Biochemistry 41: 756–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Juanpere J, Pérez-Vendrell AM, Brufau J (2004) Effect of microbial phytase on broilers fed barley-based diets in the presence or not of endogenous phytase. Animal Feed Science and Technology 115: 265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jwanny EW, Rashad MM, Abdu HM (1995) Solid-state fermentation of agricultural wastes into food through Pleurotus cultivation. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 50: 71–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Jyothi AN, Sasikiran K, Nambisan B, Balagopalan C (2005) Optimisation of glutamic acid production from cassava starch factory residues using Brevibacterium divaricatum. Process Biochemistry 40: 3576–3579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kalmis E, Nuri Azbar N, Yıldız H, Kalyoncu F (2008) Feasibility of using olive mill effluent (OME) as a wetting agent during the cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw. Bioresource Technology 99: 164–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kang SW, Park YS, Lee JS, Hong SI, Kim SW (2004) Production of cellulose and hemicellulases by Aspergillus niger KK2 from lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technology 91: 153–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Karunanandaa K, Varga GA (1996) Colonization of rice straw by white-rot fungi (Cyathus stercoreus): effect on ruminal fermentation pattern, nitrogen metabolism, and fiber utilization during continuous culture. Animal Feed Science Technology 61: 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kherrati B, Faid M, Elyachioui M, Wahmane A (1998) Process for recycling slaughter-houses wastes and by-products by fermentation. Bioresource Technology 63: 75–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Krishna C, Chandrasekaran M (1995) Economic utilization of cabbage wastes through solid-state fermentation by native microflora. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore 32:199–201Google Scholar
  94. Kristinsson HG, Rasco BA (2000) Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical, and functional properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 40: 43–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kuhn, DD, Boardman GD, Craig SR, Flick GJ Jr., Mclean E (2008) Use of microbial flocs generated from tilapia effluent as a nutritional supplement for shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in recirculating aquaculture systems. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39: 72–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kurbanoglu EB (2003) Investigation of the use of ram horn hydrolysate for fungal protein production. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83: 1134–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kurbanoglu EB, Algur OF (2002) Single-cell protein production from ram horn hydrolysate by bacteria. Bioresource Technology 85: 125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kuzmanova S, Vandeska E, Dimitrovski A (1991) Production of mycelial protein and cellulolytic enzymes from food wastes. Journal of Industrial Microbiology 7: 257–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lallo CHO, Singh R, Donawa AA, Madoo G (1997) The ensiling of poultry offal with sugarcane molasses and Lactobacillus culture for feeding to growing/finishing pigs under tropical conditions. Animal Feed Science Technology 67: 213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Laconi S, Molle G, Cabiddu A, Pompei R (2007) Bioremediation of olive oil mill wastewater and production of microbial biomass. Biodegradation 18: 559–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lal N, Panda T (1995) Studies on protein enrichment in sawdust by Pleurotus-sajor-caju. Bioprocess Engineering 12: 163–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Laufenberg G, Kunz B, Nystroem M (2003) Transformation of vegetable waste into value added products. Bioresource Technology 87: 167–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mamma D, Kourtoglou E, Christakopoulos P (2008) Fungal multienzyme production on industrial by-products of the citrus-processing industry. Bioresource Technology 99: 2373–2383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mantzavinos D, Kalogerakis N (2005) Treatment of olive mill effluents Part I. Organic matter degradation by chemical and biological processes- an overview. Environment International 31: 289–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Martin AM (Ed.) (1998) Bioconversion of Waste Materials to Industrial Products, second ed. Blackie Academic and Professional, LondonGoogle Scholar
  106. Mazutti, M., Bender, J.P., Treichel, H., Di Luccio, M., 2006. Optimization of inulinase production by solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as substrate. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 39: 56–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Misra AK, Mishra AS, Tripathi MK, Prasad R, Vaithiyanathan S, Jakhmola RC (2007) Optimization of solid state fermentation of mustard (Brassica campestris) straw for production of animal feed by white rot fungi (Ganoderma lucidum) Asian-Australasian. Journal of Animal Sciences 20: 208–213Google Scholar
  108. Mitchell DA, Berovic M, Krieger N (2000) Biochemical engineering of solid state bioprocessing. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 68: 61–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mukherjee R, Nandi B (2004) Improvement of in vitro digestibility through biological treatment of water hyacinth biomass by two Pleurotus species. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 53: 7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Murugesan GS Sathishkumar M, Swaminathan K (2005) Supplementation of waste tea fungal biomass as a dietary ingredient for broiler chicks. Bioresource Technology 96: 1743–1748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Najafpour GD, Klasson KT, Ackerson MD, Clausen EC, Gaddy JL (1994) Biological conversion of poultry-processing waste to single-cell protein. Bioresource Technology 48: 65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Nancib N, Nancib A, Boudrant J (1997) Use of waste date products in the fermentative formation of baker’s yeast biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioresource Technology 60: 67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ngoan LD, An LV, Ogle B, Lindberg JE (2000) Ensiling techniques for shrimp by-products and their nutritive value for pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 13: 1278–1284Google Scholar
  114. Nguyen TTT, Guyot J-P, Icard-Verniere C, Rochette I, Loiseau G (2007a) Effect of high pressure homogenisation on the capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum A6 to ferment rice/soybean slurries to prepare high energy density complementary food. Food Chemistry 102: 1288–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nguyen TTT, Loiseau G, Icard-Verniere C, Rochette I, Treche Sc, Guyot J-P (2007b) Effect of fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria, in process combinations, on characteristics of rice/soybean slurries: A new method for preparing high energy density complementary foods for young children. Food Chemistry 100: 623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nguyen V, Bednarski W, Kowalewskapiontas J, Tomasik J (1992) The growth-conditions of Cephalosporium eichhorniae for the conversion of starch substrates to protein. Acta Biotechnologica 12: 325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Nigam JN (1998) Single cell protein from pineapple cannery effluent. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 14: 693–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Nigam P, Singh D (1994) Solid-state (substrate) fermentation systems and their applications in biotechnology. Journal of Basic Microbiology 34: 405–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Nigam P, Singh D (1996) Processing of agricultural wastes in solid state fermentation for microbial protein production. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 55: 373–380Google Scholar
  120. Noomhorm A, Ilangantileke S, Bautista MB (1992) Factors in the protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 58: 117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Nortey TN, Patience JF, Sands JS, Zijlstra RT (2007) Xylanase supplementation improves energy digestibility of wheat by-products in grower pigs. Livestock Science 109: 96–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Obadina AO, Oyewole OB, Sanni LO, Abiola SS (2006) Fungal enrichment of cassava peels proteins. African Journal of Biotechnology 5: 302–304Google Scholar
  123. Oboh G (2006) Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation Techniques. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 9: 46–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Oboh G, Elusiyan CA (2007) Changes in the nutrient and anti-nutrient content of micro-fungi fermented cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers. African Journal of Biotechnology 6: 2150–2157Google Scholar
  125. Oboh G, Akindahunsi AA (2003) Biochemical changes in cassava products (flour and gari) subjected to Saccharomyces cerevisae solid media fermentation. Food Chemistry 82: 599–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Okine A, Aibibua HY, Okamoto M (2005) Ensiling of potato pulp with or without bacterial inoculants and its effect on fermentation quality, nutrient composition and nutritive value. Animal Feed Science and Technology 121: 329–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Oliveira MA, Rodrigues C, dos Reis EM, Nozaki J (2001) Production of fungal protein by solid substrate fermentation of cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica. Quimica Nova 24: 307–310Google Scholar
  128. Onwueme I (1999) Taro cultivation in Asia and the Pacific, Food and Agricultural Organisation. RAP Publication 1999/16. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok ThailandGoogle Scholar
  129. Onwueme IC, Charles WB (1994) Tropical root and tuber crop production, perspectives and future prospects. FAO Plant Production and Protection paper 126, 288Google Scholar
  130. Ooijkaas LP, Weber F, Buitelaar RM, Tramper J, Rinzema A (2000) Defined media an inert supports: their potential as solid-state fermentation production system. Trends in Biotechnology 18: 356–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Orozco AL, Perez MI, Guevara O, Rodriguez J Hernandez M, Gonzalez-Vila FJ, Polvillo O, Arias ME (2008) Biotechnological enhancement of coffee pulp residues by solid-state fermentation with Streptomyces. Py-GUMS analysis. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 81:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ortega GM, Martinez EO, Betancourt D, Gonzalez AE, Otero MA (1992) Bioconversion of sugar-cane crop residues with white-rot fungi Pleurotus sp. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 8: 402–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ortiz-Tovar G, Lopez-Miranda J, Cerrillo-Soto MA, Juarez-Reyes A, Favela-Torres E, Soto-Cruz O (2007) Effect of solid substrate fermentation on the nutritional quality of agro-industrial residues. Interciencia 32: 339–342Google Scholar
  134. Pandey A, Soccol CR (2000) Economic utilization of crop residues for value addition: A futuristic approach. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 59: 12–22Google Scholar
  135. Pandey A, Soccol CR, Nigam P, Brand D, Mohan R, Roussos S (2000a) Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses. Biochemical Engineering Journal 6:153–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pandey A, Soccol CR, Nigam P, Soccol VT (2000b) Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. I: sugarcane bagasse. Bioresource Technology 74: 69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Pandey, A (2003) Solid-state fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal 13: 81–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Patrabansh S, Madan M (1997) Studies on cultivation, biological efficiency and chemical analysis of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr) Singer on different bio-wastes. Acta Biotechnologica 17:107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Peng X, Chen H (2008) Single cell oil production in solid-state fermentation by Microsphaeropsis sp from steam-exploded wheat straw mixed with wheat bran. Bioresource Technology 99: 3885–3889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Philippoussis A, Diamantopoulou P, Israilides C (2007) Productivity of agricultural residues used for the cultivation of the medicinal fungus Lentinula edodes. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 59: 216–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Plessas S, Koliopoulos D, Kourkoutas Y, Psarianos C, Alexopoulos A,Marchant R, Banat IM, Koutinas AA (2008) Upgrading of discarded oranges through fermentation using kefir in food industry. Food Chemistry 106: 40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Prakasham RS, Rao CS, Sarma PN (2006) Green gram husk—an inexpensive substrate for alkaline protease production by Bacillus sp. in solid-state fermentation. Bioresource Technology 97: 1449–1454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Raghavarao KSMS, Ranganathan TV, Karanth NG (2003) Some engineering aspects of solid-state fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal 13: 127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Rahmat H, Hodge RA, Manderson GJ, Yu PL (1995) Solid-substrate fermentation of Kloeckera-apiculata and Candida-utilis on apple pomace to produce an improved stock-feed. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 11: 168–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rajoka MI (2005) Production of single cell protein through fermentation of a perennial grass grown on saline lands with Cellulomonas biazotea. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 21: 207–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rajoka MI, Kiani MAT, Khan S, Awan MS, Hashmi AS (2004) Production of single cell protein from rice polishings using Candida utilis. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20: 297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ravinder R, Rao LV, Ravindra P (2003) Studies on Aspergillus oryzae mutants for the production of single cell proteins from deoiled rice bran. Food Technology and Biotechnology 41:243–246Google Scholar
  148. Robinson T, Nigam P (2003) Bioreactor design for protein enrichment of agricultural residues by solid state fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal 13: 197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Rodriguez Z, Boucourt R, Elias A, Nunez O (2005) Effect of the inoculation moment on the fermentative process of mixtures of sugarcane and sweet potato. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 39: 289–295Google Scholar
  150. Rodriguez-Ramirez HE, Hernandez-Gomez C, Rodriguez-Muela C, Ruiz-Barrera O, Salvador-Torres F (2007) Protein production by solid state fermentation of apple waste and pomace. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 285–285Google Scholar
  151. Roig A, Cayuela ML, Sanchez-Monedero MA (2006) An overview on olive mill wastes and their valorisation methods. Waste Management 26: 960–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Roopesh, K., Sumitra Ramachandran, K., Nampoothiri, M., Szakacs, G., Pandey, A., 2006. Comparison of phytase production on wheat bran and oilcakes in solid-state fermentation by Mucor racemosus. Bioresource Technology 97: 506–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Salmones D, Mata G, Waliszewski KN (2005) Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: Biomass production and substrate biodegradationm. Bioresource Technology 96: 537–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sampedro I, Annibale AD, Ocampo JA, Stazi SR, Garcia-Romera I (2005) Bioconversion of olive-mill dry residue by Fusarium lateritium and subsequent impact on its phytotoxicity. Chemosphere 60: 1393–1400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sampedro I, D’Annibale A, Ocampo JA, Stazi SR, García-Romera I (2007) Solid-state cultures of Fusarium oxysporum transform aromatic components of olive-mill dry residue and reduce its phytotoxicity. Bioresource Technology 98: 3547–3554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sanchez A, Ysunza F, Beltran-Garcia MJ, Esqueda M (2002) Biodegradation of viticulture wastes by Pleurotus: A source of microbial and human food and its potential use in animal feeding. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50: 2537–2542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sands JS, Kay RM (2007) Phyzyme XP phytase improves growth performance and nutrient utilization in wheat-based diets fed to weaned pigs. Livestock Science 109:264–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Santana-Delgado H, Avila E, Sotelo A (2008) Preparation of silage from spanish mackerel comberomoru maculates and its evaluation in broiler diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 141: 129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Santos MM, Rosa AS, Dal’boit S, Mitchell DA, Kriger N (2004) Thermal denaturation: is solid state fermentation really a good technology for the production of enzymes? Bioresource Technology 93: 261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Scerra V, Caparraa P, Fotia F, Lanzab M, Priolob A (2001) Citrus pulp and wheat straw silage as an ingredient in lamb diets: effects on growth and carcass and meat quality. Small Ruminant Research 40: 51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Scerra V, Caridi A, Foti F, Sinatra MC, Caparra P (2000) Changes in chemical composition during the colonisation of citrus pulps by a dairy Penicillium roqueforti strain. Bioresource Technology 72: 197–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Schimidt J, Szakacs G, Cenkvari E, Sipocz J, Urbanszki K, Tengerdy RP (2001) Enzyme assisted ensiling of alfalfa with enzymes by solid substrate fermentation. Bioresource Technology 76: 207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Schneider O, Sereti V, Machiels MAM, Eding EH, Verreth JAJ (2006) The potential of producing heterotrophic bacteria biomass on aquaculture waste. Water Research 40:2684–2694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Selle PH, Ravindran V, Ravindran G, Pittolo PH, Bryden WL (2003) Influence of phytase and xylanase supplementation on growth performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers offered wheat-based diets. Asian-Australian Journal Animal Science 16: 394–402Google Scholar
  165. Shaw DM, Narasimha RD, Mahendrakar NS (1998) Effect of different levels of molasses, salt and antimycotic agents on microbial profiles during fermentation of poultry intestine. Bioresource Technology 63: 237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Shojaosadati SA, Babaripour V (2002) Citric acid production from apple pomace in multi layer packed bed solid state bioreactor. Process Biochemistry 37: 909–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Shojaosadati SA, Faraidouni R, Madadi-Nouei A, Mohamadpour I (1999) Protein enrichment of lignocellulosic substrates by solid state fermentation using Neurospora sitophila. Resource Conservation and Recycling 27: 73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Singh GP, Singh K, Gupta BN (1995) Bioconversion of ammonia to biological protein by Coprinus-fimetarius during solid substrate fermentation of ammoniated (urea) wheat-straw. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 65: 602–605Google Scholar
  169. Singh K (2004) Biotechnological approaches on conversion of agrocellulosic residues and dairy wastes into useful end-products. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 74: 414–423Google Scholar
  170. Singh K, Puniya AK, Singh S (1996) Biotransformation of crop residues into animal feed by solid state fermentation. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 55: 472–478Google Scholar
  171. Skrede A, Nes IF (1988) Slaughterhouse by-products preserved by Lactobacillus plantamm fermentation as feed for mink and foxes. Animal Feed Science Technogy 20: 187–198Google Scholar
  172. Slottner D, Bertilsson J (2006) Effect of ensiling technology on protein degradation during ensiling. Animal Feed Science and Technology 127: 101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Soccol CR (1996) Biotechnology products from cassava root by solid state fermentation. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 55: 358–364Google Scholar
  174. Soler-Rivas C, Garcia-Rosado A, Poloniab I, Junca-Blanch G, Marin FR, Wichers HJ (2006) Microbiological effects of olive mill waste addition to substrates for Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 57: 37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Srirotha K, Chollakup R, Chotineeranatb S, Piyachomkwan K, Oates CG (2000) Processing of cassava waste for improved biomass utilization. Bioresource Technology 71:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Stabnikova O, Wang, J-Y, Ding H.O, Jay J-H (2005) Biotransformation of vegetable and fruit processing wastes into yeast biomass enriched with selenium. Bioresource Technology 96: 747–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Stamford TLM, Decamargo R (1992) Fungal protein enrichment of residual liquor from a sugarcane waste Saccharum officinarum. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 42:351–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Sunita M, Rao DG (2003) Bioconversion of mango processing waste to fish-feed by microalgae isolated from fruit processing industrial effluents. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 62: 344–347Google Scholar
  179. Tengerdy RP, Szakacs G (2003) Bioconversion of lignocellulose in solid substrate fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal 13: 169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Teniola OD, Odunfa SA (2001) The effects of processing methods on the levels of lysine, methionine and the general acceptability of ogi processed using starter cultures. International Journal of Food Microbiology 63: 1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Titi HH, Tabbaa MJ (2004) Efficacy of exogenous cellulase on digestibility in lambs and growth of dairy calves. Livestock Production Science 87: 207– 214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Tripathi JP, Yadav JS (1992) Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw into animal feed by Pleurotus ostreatus – a pilot effort. Animal Feed Science and Technology 37: 59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tripathi MK, Mishra AS, Misra AK, Vaithiyanathan S, Prasad R, Jakhmola RC (2008) Selection of white-rot basidiomycetes for bioconversion of mustard (Brassica compestris) straw under solid-state fermentation into energy substrate for rumen micro-organism. Letters in Applied Microbiology 46: 364–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tsioulpas A, Dimou D, Iconomou D, Aggelis G (2002) Phenolic removal in olive oil mill wastewater by strains of Pleurotus spp in respect to their phenol oxidase (laccase) ctivity. Bioresource Technology 84: 251–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Ubalua AO (2007) Cassava wastes: Treatment options and value addition alternatives. African Journal of Biotechnology 6: 2065–2073Google Scholar
  186. Ugwuanyi JO (2008a) Yield and protein quality of thermophilic Bacillus spp. Biomass related to thermophilic aerobic digestion of agricultural wastes for animal feed supplementation. Bioresource Technology 99: 3279–3290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Ugwuanyi JO (2008b) Moisture sorption isotherm and xerophilic moulds associated with dried cocoyam chips in storage in Nigeria. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 43: 846–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Ugwuanyi JO, Harvey LM, McNeil B (2006) Application of thermophilic aerobic digestion in protein enrichment of high strength agricultural waste slurry for animal feed supplementation. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 81: 1641–1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Ugwuanyi JO, Harvey LM, McNeil B (2008) Protein enrichment of corn cob heteroxylan waste slurry by thermophilic aerobic digestion using Bacillus stearothermophilus. Bioresource Technology 99: 6974–6985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Urbaniak M, Sakson G (1999) Preserving sludge from meat industry waste waters through lactic fermentation. Process Biochemistry 34: 127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Vadiveloo J (2003) Solid-state fermentation of fibrous residues. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 12: 665–676Google Scholar
  192. Valino E, Elias A, Carrasco T, Albelo N (2003) Effect of inoculation of the strain Trichoderma viride 137 on auto-femented sugar cane bagasse. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 37: 43–49Google Scholar
  193. Valino E, Elias A, Torres V, Albelo N (2002) Study of the microbial content on fresh sugar cane bagasse as substrate for animal feeding by solid state fermentation. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 36: 359–364Google Scholar
  194. Varnayte RN, Raudonene VZ (2004) Bioconversion of straw waste by Micromycetes. Mikologiya I Fitopatologiya 38: 80–83Google Scholar
  195. Vázquez JA, Docasal SF, Prieto MA, Gonzalez MP, Murado MA (2008). Growth and metabolic features of lactic acid bacteria in media with hydrolysed fish viscera. An approach to bio-silage of fishing by-products. Bioresource Technology 99: 6246–6257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Vendruscolo F, Albuquerque PM, Streit F, Esposito E, Ninow JL (2008) Apple pomace: A versatile substrate for biotechnological applications. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 28: 1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Venugopal V, Shahidi F (1995) Value-added products from underutilized fish species. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 35: 431–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Vidotti RM, Viegas EMM, Carneiro DJ (2003) Amino acid composition of processed fish silage using different raw materials. Animal Feed Science and Technology 105: 199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Viera MP, Pinchetti JLG, de Vicose GC, Bilbao A, Suarez S, Haroun RJ, Izquierdo MS (2005) Suitability of three red macroalgae as a feed for the abalone Haliotis tuberculata coccinea Reeve. Aquaculture 248: 75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Villas-Boas SG, Esposito E, de Mendonca MM (2003) Bioconversion of apple pomace into a nutritionally enriched substrate by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 19: 461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Virupakshi S, Gireesh Babu K, Gaikwad SR, Naik GR (2005) Production of a xylanolytic enzyme by a thermoalkaliphilic Bacillus sp. JB-99 in solid state fermentation. Process Biochemistry 40: 431–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Vladimirova EG, Saubenova MG, Ilyaletdinov AN, Karpova GV (1995) Bacterial conversion of plant waste products into feed. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 31: 367–369Google Scholar
  203. Volanis M, Zoiopoulos P, Panagou E, Tzerakis C (2006) Utilization of an ensiled citrus pulp mixture in the feeding of lactating dairy ewes. Small Ruminant Research 64: 190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Woomer PL, Muzira R, Bwamiki D, Mutetikka D, Amoding A, Bekunda MA (2000) Biological management of water hyacinth waste in Uganda. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 17: 181–196Google Scholar
  205. Woyengo TA, Guenter W, Sands JSb, Nyachoti CM, Mirza MA (2008) Nutrient utilisation and performance responses of broilers fed a wheat-based diet supplemented with phytase and xylanase alone or in combination. Animal Feed Science Technology, doi:10.1016/ j.anifeedsci.2007.11.013Google Scholar
  206. Yang HY, Wang XF, Liu JB, Gao LJ, Ishii M, Igarashi Y, Cui ZJ (2006) Effect of water-soluble carbohydrate content on silage fermentation of wheat straw. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 101: 232–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Yang SS, Jang HD, Liew, CM, Dupreez JC (1993) protein enrichment of sweet-potato residue by solid-state cultivation with mono-cultures and cocultures of amylolytic fungi. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 9: 258–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Yang X, Chen I, Gao HL, Li Z (2001) Bioconversion of corn straw by coupling ensiling with solid state fermentation. Bioresource Technology 71: 277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Yang YH, Wang BC, Xiang LJ, Duan CR, Wang QH, Lian J (2003) Construction of a microbial consortium used for solid-state fermentation on rice chaff. Colloids and SurfacesB-Biointerfaces 32: 51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Yang SS (1993) protein enrichment of sweet-potato residue with coculture of amylolytic fungi by solid-state fermentation. Biotechnology Advances 11: 495–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Youssef BM, Aziz NH (1999) Influence of gamma-irradiation on the bioconversion of rice straw by Trichoderma viride into single cell protein. Cytobios 97: 171–183Google Scholar
  212. Zadrazil F (1997) Changes in in vitro digestibility of wheat straw during fungal growth and after harvest of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.) on laboratory and industrial scale. Journal of Applied Animal Research 11: 37–48Google Scholar
  213. Zadrazil F, Puniya AK (1995) Studies on the effect of particle size on solid-state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse into animal feed using white-rot fungi. Bioresource Technology 54: 85–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Zervakis G, Yiatras P, Balis C (1996) Edible mushrooms from olive oil mill wastes. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 38: 237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Zhang ZY, Jin B, Bai ZH, Wang XY (2008) Production of fungal biomass protein using microfungi from winery wastewater treatment. Bioresource Technology 99: 3871–3876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Zvauya R, Muzondo MI (1994) Some factors affecting protein enrichment of cassava flour by solid-state fermentation. Food Science and Technology-Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie 27: 590–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Obeta Ugwuanyi
    • 1
  • Brian McNeil
    • 2
  • Linda M. Harvey
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of Nigeria, NsukkaEnuguNigeria
  2. 2.Strathclyde Fermentation Centre, Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy&Biomedical ScienceUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations