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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers in Schizophrenia Research

  • Heike Tost
  • Shabnam Hakimi
  • Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

Abstract

In the preceding decades, neuroimaging techniques have emerged as a pivotal tool for the noninvasive, in vivo examination of subtle brain dysfunctions in psychiatric patient populations. Methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have proven successful in bridging the gap between genetic and molecular mechanisms and psychopathological phenomena by characterizing associated structural and functional anomalies on the intermediate neural systems level. This development has been of particular relevance for schizophrenia research, where neuroimaging has helped to identify core deficits of dopaminergic neurotransmis-sion, frontal lobe efficiency, and neuronal plasticity. The current chapter reviews our current knowledge on MRI neuroimaging biomarkers in schizophrenia. Special consideration is given to the neurocognitive domains most critically affected by the disorder, as well as the characterization of effects of schizophrenia susceptibility genes and therapeutic drugs.

Keywords

Schizophrenia, functional magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry gray matter volume imaging genetics dopamine prefrontal cortex motor functioning working memory attention 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heike Tost
    • 1
  • Shabnam Hakimi
    • 1
  • Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Genes, Cognition, and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental HealthNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of Clinical Medicine MannheimUniversity of HeidelbergGermany

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